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Books > Hindu > Bhakti > The Bhaktirasamrtasindhu of Rupa Gosvamin
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The Bhaktirasamrtasindhu of Rupa Gosvamin
The Bhaktirasamrtasindhu of Rupa Gosvamin
Description
From the Jacket:

Bhakti of devotional love is the way of directly encountering the rasa in human experience. The aesthetic experience of rasa which is available to human beings was somehow not fully manifested and established from the 'intellectual' point of view. A glimpse of the rasa accomplished is available in the encounter of Uddhava and Gopies. Humans by nature are rational and logical beings. They prefer logical conclusions which have universal applicability. To logically establish the path of rasa was the endeavour of the seekers and thinkers of Vrindavan, which emerged as the 16th century intellectual, cultural and spiritual center of the Vraja region. Sri Rupa Gosvamin, a direct disciple of Sri Caitanya, was a shining member of the team of six Gosvamins. For him the emotionally experienced bhakti-prema-rasa is equally knowable and communicable. The human consciousness could reach the ocean of rasa through Sri Rupa Gosvamin's unique work, Sri Bhaktirasamrtasindhu. If there is an experience, it can be expressed and for an expression to be meaningful it has to be guided by a 'grammar' or a sastra. The famous trilogy of Bhaktirasamrtasindhu, Ujjvalanilamani and Natakacandrika of Sri Rupa Gosvamin provided for the first time a total sastra of bhaktirasa.

It is felt that the Bhaktirasamrtasindhu be made available to the English-knowing world as well. Dr. David Haberman has fulfilled this need by undertaking the stupendous task of translating this definitive text on bhaktirasa into English. The present edition includes the original Sanskrit in Devanagari, Dr. Haberman's translation and exegetical notes explaining all the intricate points of the text. An exhaustive table of contents and elaborate introduction, glossary and bibliography have greatly enhanced the value of the edition.

In the Bhaktirasamrtasindhu, the bhaktirasa is totally uncovered and consecrated in its own right. The human intellect drank to its hearts content this pure, unadulterated rasathrough this text. This comprehension gets manifested in the rich poetic, musical, dramatic, ritualistic and architectural traditions of the 16th century Vraja. IGNCA has covered some of these manifestations in the following Vraja Nathadwara Prakalpa studies: Evening Blossoms - The Temple Tradition of Sanjhi in Vrndavana (1996); Govindadeva - A Dialogue in Stone (1996); In Favour of Govindadevji - Historical documents relating to a deity of Vrndavana and Eastern Rajasthan (1999).

In the Vraja Prakalpa it is a major commitment to make available this wisdom of rasa tradition, the tradition of Srimad Bhagavata and the Natyasastra of Bharat culminating in the text of Bhaktirasamrtasindhu by Sri Rupa Gosvamin. The late Dr. Premlata Sharma, an esteemed scholars of rasa-sastra, undertook the responsibility of translating this famous rasa trilogy into Hindi. Her Hindi translation of the Bhaktirasamrtasindhu is being published. The English translation of the same text has been undertaken by Dr. David Haberman.

About the Author:

Dr. Haberman is currently on the faculty of College of Arts and Sciences, Department of Religious Studies, Indiana University. His translation of the Bhaktirasamrtasindhu not only shows his academic capability but also speaks his being soaken in the rasa parampara. Not only his two decade long physical journeys in the forests of Vraja-Vrndavana but also several of his well acclaimed published works on the cultural spiritual traditions of Vraja bear testimony to that.

Preface:

That translation is an art and not a science is never more evident than when a translator faces the choice of the audience for whom he will translate. I have chosen to present this text in English in a style intended for general academic audience, not primarily for philologists. I assume that Sanskritists can read the text in its original language, and that most of my readers have little or no knowledge of Sanskrit. Therefore, although I have tried to make this translation as literal possible, I have also aimed to make it accessible to the nonspecialist; many of the notes were written particularly with this in mind. Consequently, I have endeavored to translate every term into English. For example, although the Sanskrit term bhakti is not necessarily well translated as "devotion", I have elected to do so in order to make the term available in a form commonly found in English translation. In this sprit, I have also sometimes added introductory phrases in square brackets (e.g., [The words of Yasoda:]) where I have deemed them necessary for clear understanding. A brief glossary is included at the end of this book to assist in understanding technical terms. Moreover, although the Bhaktirasamrtasindhu is written in verse that is often beautifully poetic, I have chosen to translate the entire text into prose for the sake of clarity.

This work was produced in response to an invitation by the Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts, specifically for the Vraja Nathadvara Prakalpa series. A decision was made to publish a Devanagari edition and English translation of the version of the Bhaktirasamrtasindhu edited by Puridasa Mahasaya and published in Vrndavana in 1946 in the Bengali script. This version was based on four published manuscripts. I have found very little disparity between the various published editions and the unpublished manuscripts of the Bhaktirasamrtasindhu housed in the Vrndavana Research Institute. I have also made productive use of the edition published by Haridasa Dasa (Navadvipa: Haribola Kuthira, 1945), which includes the commentaries of Jiva Gosvamin, Visvanatha Cakravartin, and Mukundadasa Gosvamin, as well as a Bengali translation of the text by Haridasa himself, and the edition published by Syamadasa Hakima (Vrndavana: Harinama Press, 1981), which includes the commentaries of Jiva Gosvamin and Visvanatha Cakravartin, as well as a Hindi translation of the text by Syamadasa himslef. I found the Sanskrit commentaries as well as these Bengali and Hindi translation to tbe extremely useful throughout my own labors to produce a faithful translation of this text.

I had the great fortune of being able to translate most of the Bhaktirasamrtasindhu while living in the Radharamana temple compound in Vrndavana. I have many fond memories of sitting at my desk after being woken by the temple bells of the first service before sunrise, and working on this project before a window that overlooked Nidhivana, as the pink light of the rising sun began to illuminate its alluring gardens. I would be pleased if some of the flavor of these scenes has found its way into this translation.

Project Director's Note:

Vraja Nathadwara Prakalpa a project undertaken by Sri Caitanya Prema Samsthana and Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts is dedicated to the study of the great cultural heritage of Vraja, a centre of Indian culture. We envisage the study of Vraja as an integrated unit which should consider the geographic and environmental parameters of the area, its social and economic history, as well as the artistic, ritualistic and devotional dimensions, in order to elucidate what it may be that provides the parameters of this centre. These dimensions give a body to the centre, yet at the same time, it needs a system of ideas to work as its driving spirit.

The Indian tradition is the worshipper of the absolute as sat, cit and ananda or the satya, siva, sundara. The cognitive awareness (jnana), the volitional enterprise (karma) and the aesthetic experience (ananda). Although absolute and non-dual in its own nature, the ultimate experience manifests differently due to variety in the nature of seekers. The India mind had understood the human nature through the categories of cognitive, conative and emotive – and predominance of one of these traits characterizes the person. The predominantly cognitive seekers travel on the path of jnana. The more active conative beings follow karma and the emotive seekers take the route of bhakti. Despite the destination is common – the undifferentiated experience of ultimate; the same non-dual reality appears as absolute sat, absolute cit and absolute ananda, respectively. This sadhana or the journey is the process of uncovering the real from the unreal, via negativea; which tells us that knowledge is not not-knowledge (ajnana), consciousness is not inert (jada) and ananda is not suffering (duhkha).

The evaluation of the experience of the Absolute Knowledge, the Absolute Will and the Absolute feeling seems not possible. Logically speaking the cognitive process focusses upon the objective dimension of human experience. The experience of the Absolute Will is where the subject totally eclipses the object in the last analysis. But in the feeling mode a relational experience of subject with the object is a prerequisite, which exists even in the last analysis. Therefore, the path of felling or bhakti includes object (knowledge) and subject (will) and transcends them both in its relational category.

Bhakti or devotional love is the way of directly encountering the rasa is the human experience. The aesthetic experience of rasa which is beginninglessly and constantly available to us was somehow not fully manifest and established from the "intellectual' point of view. Whether it is the hymns of the Vedas or the deliberations of the Upanisads, whether it is the poetic tradition of Kalidasa or the Puranic tradition of Vedavyasa, the prema, bhakti and rasa never stopped flowing; however, intellectually unaccomplished it remained, A glimpse of the rasa accomplishment is available in the encounter between Uddhava and Gopis. After that encounter the wisdom of knowledge wanted to be a domicile of Vraja, the realm of prema rasa.

Humans, by nature, are rational and logical beings. They prefer logical conclusions which have universal applicability. To logically establish and communicate the path of rasa was the endeavour of the seekers and thinkers of Vrindavan which emerged as the distinguished 16th century intellectual, cultural, spiritual centre of the Vraja region. Sri Rupa Gosvamin was a shining member of the Vrindavan Gosvamin's club. For him the emotionally experienced bhakti-prema-rasa is equally knowable and communicable. The human rasa consciousness could reach the ocean of rasa through Sri Rupa Gosvamin's unique work, Sri Bhaktirasamrtasindhu.

The aesthetic experience of rasa is not only the summum bonum but also the human raison d' etre. If there is an experience it can be expressed and for an expression to be meaningful it had to be guided by a "grammar" or a sastra. The communication and application of the sastric traditions enriches the artistic creativity in media which in turn enriches the sastric process. The famous trilogy of Bhaktirasamrtasindhu, Ujjvalanilamani and Natakacandrika of Sri Rupa Gosvamin provided for the first time a total sastra of bhakti-rasa. In the Bhaktirasamrtasindhu the bhakti-rasa is totally uncovered and consecrated in its own right. The human intellect drank to its hearts content this pure, unadulterated rasa through this text. This comprehension gets manifested in the rich poetic, musical, dramatic, ritualistic and architectural traditions of the 16th century Vraja. We have covered some of these manifestations in the following Vraja Nathadwara Prakalpa studies: Evening Blossoms – The temple tradition of Sanjhi in Vrndavana (1996); Govindadeva – A Dialogue in Stone (1996); In Favour of Govindadevji – Historical documents relating to a deity of Vrndavan and Eastern Rajasthan (1999).

The Prakalpa is aware of a peculiar transitory moment in our scholastic history where the interpreters of the sastras in Sanskrit are getting fewer by the day. Hence, it is imperative that this wisdom is made available to the future generations through translations in Indian languages and possibly also in English.

In the Vraja Nathadwara Prakalpa it is a major commitment to make available this wisdom of rasa tradition, the tradition of Srimad Bhagavata and the Natyasastra of Bharat culminating to the text of Bhaktirasamrtasindhu by Sri Rupa Gosvamin. The late Dr. Premlata Sharma, an esteemed scholar of rasa-sastra, undertook the responsibility of translating this famous rasa trilogy into Hindi. Fortunately before departing from this world Dr. Premlata Sharma had finished her work and it is being put together for press by her able successor, Dr. Urmila Sharma. Her Hindi translation of the Bhaktirasamrtasindhu is being published as VNP Series No.3, the first volume of which was given a very appreciative scholarly reception. Her second and third volume of Bhaktirasamrtasindhu are in press.

It was also felt that these works of Sri Rupa Gosvamin be made available to the non-Hindi speaking world as well. We are greatful to Dr. David Haberman for following this need by undertaking the stupendous task of translating this definitive text on bhakti-rasa in to English. Any translation necessarily brings in the element of interpretation. In the realm of scholarship where interpretation is involved, differences of viewpoint will be natural and are even welcome. Hence, we have decided to included the original Sanskrit text in Devanagari for the discerning scholarly community. An exhaustive table of contents will also serve as an index to the volume. An exhaustive introduction on the author, text and methodology together with the endnotes, glossary and the bibliography will be found as useful tools.

We are pleased to present the English translation of the Bhaktirasamrtasindhu by Dr. David Haberman. This translation not only shows his academic capability but also brings out his being soaked in the rasa-parampara. Not his two decade long physical journeys in the forests of Vraja-Vrindavan but several of his well acclaimed published works on the cultural-spiritual traditions of Vraja bear witness to that.

Table of Contents

Introduction
The Yoga of Divine Emotionsxxix
Bhakti: A New Kind of Religion Appears in Vrajaxxx
The Essence of Rasa: A Brief Discussion of Rasa Theoryxxxvi
The Ocean: Structure and Content of the Bhaktirasamrtasindhuxlix
Translation of the Bhaktirasamrtasindhu
EASTERN QUADRANTsloka
Explanation of the Categories of Devotion to the Lord
First Wave: The General Characteristics of Devotion(pages 2-17)
Prayer for Success (mangalacarana)1-6
Contents of Eastern Quadrant7-9
Definition of the Highest Devotion10-16
The Six Qualities of Devotion17-43
The Destruction of Difficulties18
Two Types of Sin19-23
Seeds of Sin24
Ignorance25-26
The Bestowal of Auspiciousness27
Delight and Attraction28
Good Qualities29
Happiness30-32
The Trivialization of Moksa33-34
The Difficulty of Attainment35-37
The Special Concentrated Joy38-40
The Attraction of Krsna41-43
Three Categories of Devotion44
Superiority of Devotion over Logic45-46
Second Wave: Sadhana Bhakti(pages 18-97)
Threefold Division of Devotion1
Definition of Sadhana Bhakti2-5
Vaidhi Bhakti6-13
Eligibility for Vaidhi Bhakti14-16
Highest17
Average18
Lowest19
Eligibility Mentioned in the Gita20-21
The Obstructions of Ordinary Enjoyment and Moksa22-54
The Limited Value of Moksa55-57
Superiority of Govinda over Narayana58-59
The Universal Eligibility for Bhakti60-71
Vaidhi Bhakti Defined in Haribhaktivilasa72
Definition of a Practice73
The 64 Practices of Vaidhi Bhakti74-95
Illustrated Explanations of the 64 Practices96-237
1) Surrender at the Feet of a Guru97
2) Initiation and Instruction Regarding Krsna98
3) Serving the Guru with Confidence99
4) Following the Path of the Saints100-102
5) Inquiry into the True Nature of Things103
6) Renouncing Ordinary Pleasures for the Sake of Krsna104
7) Living in Sacred Places105-107
8) Acceptance of Only What is Necessary108
9) Honoring the Festival Days of Hari109
10) Respect for Holy Trees110
11) Keeping Away from People Who Have Turned Away from Krsna111-112
12) Avoiding the Attendance of Numerous Disciples113
13) Refraining from Zealous Involvement in Grand Projects113
14) Giving up Excessive Attachment to Books, etc. 113
15) Avoiding Ungenerous Behavior114
16) Not Being Overwhelmed by Sorrow115
17) Showing No Disrespect for Other Gods116
18) Refraining from Causing Distress to Other Beings117
19) Avoiding Offense in Service and Chanting the Name118-120
20) Not Tolerating Abuse Toward Krsna121
21) Wearing the Marks of a Vaisnava122
22) Wearing the Letters of Hari's Name123-124
23) Wearing Flower Garlands125-126
24) Dancing Before Krsna127-128
25) Prostrating129
26) Rising Respectfully from a Seat130
27) Politely Accompanying131
28) Visiting Temples132-134
29) Circumambulation135-136
30) Worship137-139
31) Assistance in Temples140-143
32) Singing144
33) Congregational Praise145-148
34) Silent Chanting149-150
35) Praying151-156
36) Reciting Hymns of Praise157-159
37) Eating Offered Food160
38) Drinking Water use to Wash the Deity's Feet161
39) Smelling the Deity's Sweet Fragrance162-164
40) Touching the Divine Image165
41)Looking at the Divine Image166
42)Witnessing the Worship167-169
43) Listening170-173
44) Perceiving the Grace of the Lord174
45) Remembering the Lord175-177
46) Meditating on the Lord178-182
47) Servitude toward the Lord183-187
48) Friendship for the Lord188-193
49) Fully Entrusting One's Self to the Lord194-198
50) Offering Things Dear to Oneself199
51) Making All Efforts for His Benefit200
52) Surrendering Completely201-202
53) Serving the Sacred Tulasi Plant203-205
54) Serving His Scriptures206-210
55) Serving Mathura211-213
56) Serving Vaisnavas214-219
57) Observing Great Festivals220
58) Respect for the Month of Karttika221-223
59) Celebrating the Day of Krsna's Birth224
60) Serving the Divine Image225
61) Enjoying the Sri Bhagavata Purana226-227
62) Association with Devotees228-229
63) Singing the Names of the Lord230-234
64) Living in the Blessed Circle of Mathura235-237
The Special Power of the Last Five Practices (60-64) 238
The Divine Form239
Sri Bhagavata240
Krsna's Devotees241
The Divine Name242
Blesses Circle of Mathura243
The Extraordinary Nature of these Practices244
Divine Love is the Primary Fruit245
Ordinarily Prescribed Ritual Actions are Insufficient246-247
Knowledge and Renunciation are of Little Value248-250
The Goal of Knowledge and Renunciation Achieved through Devotion251-253
Proper Renunciation254-259
Intellectual Discrimination Not a Practice of Devotion260
The Place of Ethical Restraints261-263
Perfection through One or Several Primary Practices264-268
Vaidhi Bhakti Equated to Maryada Marga269
Raganuga Bhakti270
Ragatmika Bhakti271-272
Two Types of Ragatmika273-275
Unfavorable and Favourable Emotions276-282
Amorous Ragatmika Bhakti283-287
Relational Ragatmika Bhakti288-289
Two Types of Raganuga290
Eligibility for Raganuga Bhakti291-293
The Practice of Raganuga294-296
Imitation of Amorous Bhakti297-304
Imitation of Relational Bhakti305-308
Raganuga Bhakti Equated to Pusti Marga309
Third Wave: Bhava Bhakti(pages 98-114)
Definition of Bhava (Love) 1-5
Two Ways a Bhava is Born6-23
From Practice7-14
From Grace15-23
Love is fivefold24
Examples of Indications25-40
Patience27-28
Fruitful Use of Time29
Disinterest30-31
Lack of Pride32-33
Hopefulness34-35
Longing36-37
Singing the Lord's Name38
Proclaiming His Qualities39
Delight in His Places40
Defective Love41-44
Two Types of Semblance of Love45-56
The Sudden Appearance of a Bhava57-60
The Nature of Love61
Fourth Wave: Prema Bhakti(pages 116-123)
Definition of Prema (Supreme Love) 1-3
Two Types of Prema4-14
Born from a Bhava5-18
Born from Grace9-14
The Stages of Love15-20
Closing Prayer of Eastern Quadrant21
SOUTHERN QUADRANT
Explanation of the General Characteristics of Devotional Rasa
First Wave: The Excitants(pages 124-231)
Mangalacarana for Southern Quadrant1
Contents of Southern Quadrant2-3
The Development of Rasa4-11
General Definition of the Excitants, Indications, Responses, and Transitory Emotions12-15
The Two Types of Excitants14-15
The Substantial Excitants16
Sri Krsna17
The Form of Another18
His Own Form19
Concealed20-21
Manifest22
Krsna's 64 Qualities23-217
1) Beautiful Body45-46
2) Excellent Features47-51
3) Good-Looking52-54
4) Brilliant55-59
5) Strong60-62
6) Youthful63-64
7) Conversant in Many Languages65-66
8) Truthful67-69
9) Pleasant in Speech70-71
10) Eloquent72-74
11) Learned75-78
12) Intelligent79-81
13Witty82-83
14) Artistic84-85
15) Adroit86-87
16) Dexterous88-90
17) Grateful91-93
18) Resolute94-97
19) Knowledgeable of Right Place, Time, and Receptacle98-99
20) Mindful of Scripture100-101
21) Pure102-104
22) Self-Controlled105-106
23) Persistent107-108
24) Tolerant109-110
25) Patient111-113
26) Profound114-116
27) Steadfast117-119
28) Impartial120-122
29) Generous123-125
30) Virtuous126-128
31) Brave129-131
32) Compassionate132-134
33) Respectful135-136
34) Favorable137-138
35) Humble139-140
36) Modest141-142
37) Protective to Those Who have Taken His Shelter143-144
38) Happy145-147
39) A Friend of Devotees148-150
40) Captivated by Love151-153
41) Beneficent to Everyone154-155
42) Imposing156-157
43) Famous158-160
44) Impassioner of the World161-163
45) Partial to the Good164-165
46) Charmer of Women166-168
47) Worthy of Everyone's Worship169-170
48) Prosperous171-173
49) Eminent174-175
50) Supreme176-179
51) Always Maintains His Form180-181
52) Omniscient182-183
53) Ever Fresh and New184-186
54) Concentrated Form of Being, Consciousness, and Bliss187-191
55) Endowed with Spiritual Powers192-193
56) Endowed with Inconceivably Magnificent Energy194-198
57) Has Millions of Universes Existing within His Body199-201
58) Is the Origin of All Incarnations202-203
59) Gives Salvation to Slain Enemies204-206
60) Attracts All Those Who are Absorbed in the Self207-208
61) Sweetness of Divine Love Play209-210
62) Supreme Love211-212
63) Sweetness of Flute213-214
64) Sweetness of Form215-217
The Infinite Nature of His Qualities218-219
Fullest, Fuller, and Full Forms of Hari220-223
The Four Types of Heroic Lover224-240
1) Boldly Noble226-229
2) Boldly Amorous230-232
3) Boldly Tranquil233-235
4) Boldly Haughty236-240
Hari Encompasses All Contradictions241-243
Hari is Free of All Faults244-248
The Source of All Incarnations249-250
Eight Special Virtues251-271
A) Brilliance253-254
B) Pleasantness255-256
C) Sweetness257-258
D) Auspiciousness259-260
E) Stability261-262
F) Efficacy263-266
G) Amorousness267-268
H) Generosity269-271
Krsna's Assistants272
Krsna's Devotees273-300
Practitioners276-279
Perfected280-289
Eternally Perfected290-291
The Enhancing Excitants301-384
1) Qualities303-342
Physical Qualities304-307
Age (Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence)308-335
Beauty336-337
Complexion338-339
Tenderness340-341
Vocal and Mental Qualities Identified342
2) Actions343-345
3) Ornaments346-361
Clothing347-353
Adornments354-357
Jewelry358-361
4) Smile362
5) Fragrance363
6) Flutes364-372
7) Horn373-374
8) Anklets375
9) Conch376-377
10) Footprints378-379
11) Abode380
12) Tulasi381
13) Devotees382-383
14) Festivals384
Second Wave: The Indications(pages 232-240)
Definition of Indications1-3
1) Dancing4
2) Rolling on the Ground5-6
3) Singing7
4) Shrieking8-9
5) Twisting the Body10
6) Roaring11
7) Mouth Gaping12
8) Sighing13
9) Disregarding the Opinion of Others14-15
10)Salivating16
11) Laughing Loudly17-18
12) Whirling19
13) Hiccuping20
Rare Indications21
Third Wave: The Responses(pages 242-271)
Definition of Responses1-2
Affectionate Responses3-8
Accumulated Responses9-11
Harsh Responses12-14
The Eight Responses15-60
1) Stupefaction21-27
2) Perspiration28-31
3) Goose Bumps32-36
4) Broken Voice37-42
5) Trembling43-46
6) Change of Color47-52
7) Tears53-57
8) Loss of Consciousness58-60
The Various Degrees of Responses61-70
Smoldering Responses71-72
Glowing Responses73-75
Flaming Responses76-78
Blazing Responses79-81
Four Semblances of Responses82-95
From a Semblance of Love84-85
From a Semblance of Pure Luminosity86-88
Those Without Pure Luminosity89-91
Those Which Are Contrary92-95
Lack of Virtue in the Semblances96
Fourth Wave: The Transitory Emotions(pages 272-352)
Definition of Transitory Emotions1-3
The Thirty-Three Transitory Emotions4-190
1) Indifference7-12
2) Grief13-20
3) Depression21-25
4) Fatigue26-30
5) Weariness31-34
6) Intoxication35-40
7) Arrogance41-47
8) Apprehension48-53
9) Alarm54-58
10) Agitation59-78
11) Madness79-85
12) Dementedness86-89
13) Sickness90-91
14) Confusion92-98
15) Death99-102
16) Laziness103-106
17) Mental Inertia107-112
18) Shame113-117
19) Dissimulation118-128
20) Recollection129-131
21) Speculation132-135
22) Anxiety136-139
23) Understanding140-143
24) Contentment144-147
25) Happiness148-150
26) Impatience151-154
27) Wrath155-158
28) Intolerance159-163
29) Envy164-167
30) Carelessness168-170
31) Sleepiness171-176
32) Dreaming177-178
33) Awakening179-190
The Presence of Other Emotions in Transitory Emotions191-204
The Two Types of Transitory Emotions205-223
Dependent on Another206-215
Independent216-223
The Semblance of Transitory Emotions224-231
Antagonistic225-227
Improper228-231
The Four States of Transitory Emotions232-248
Manifestation233-234
Combination235-243
Medley244-246
Resolution247-248
Operative Nature of Transitory Emotions249-255
The Way Transitory Emotions Operate on Different Kinds of Minds256-270
Fifth Wave: The Foundational Emotions(pages 354-394)
Definition of a Foundational Emotion1-2
Two Modes of Primary Love3-5
Self-Supporting4
Supportive of Another5
The Five Types of Primary Love6-37
Nondistinct Love8-21
Common9-11
Clear12-15
Peaceful16-21
Favorable Types of Love22-24
Single25
Mixed26
Respect27-29
Friendship30-32
Parental Affection33-35
Amorous Love36-37
The Nature of Primary Love38
Definition of Secondary Love39
The Seven Types of Secondary Love40-72
Humorous Love52-54
Amazed Love55-56
Energetic Love57-59
Sorrowful Love60-62
Angry Love63-66
Fearful Love67-70
Disgusted Love71-72
More on the Nature of Emotions73-76
Cool and Hot Emotions77-78
The Manner in which Foundational Emotions become Rasa79-112
The Number of Bhakti Rasas113-117
The Color of Bhakti Rasas118
The Gods of Bhakti Rasas119
More on the Nature of Bhakti Rasa120-121
The Pleasurable Nature of All Bhakti Rasas122-127
Emotional Rapture (bhavollasa)128
Those Ineligible for Bhakti Rasa129-131
Definition of a Rasa132
Closing Prayer of Southern Quadrant134
WESTERN QUADRANT
Explanation of the Primary Devotional Rasas
First Wave: Rasa of Peaceful Devotion(pages 396-411)
Mangalacarana for Western Quadrant1
Contents of Western Quadrant2-3
Definition of Peaceful Devotional Rasa4-6
Substantial Excitants7-17
Four-Armed Visnu8-10
Peaceful Devotees11-17
Enhancing Excitants18-23
Indications24-29
Responses30-32
Transitory Emotions33-34
Two Types of Foundational Emotions35-37
Impartial Love36
Concentrated Love37
Two Types of Peaceful Rasa38-42
Yearning for a Vision39-40
Direct Vision41-42
Further Discussion of Peaceful Rasa43-51
Second Wave: Rasa of Respectful Devotion(pages 412-467)
Definition of Respectful Devotional Rasa1-3
Two Types of Respectful Devotional Rasa4
Politely Respectful Rasa5-144
Substantial Excitants6-56
Hari7-15
Four Kinds of Servants16-56
Enhancing Excitants57-60
Indications61-65
Responses66-68
Transitory Emotions69-75
Foundational Emotion76-77
Three Stages of Politely Respectful Rasa78-93
Supreme Love81-83
Tenderness84-86
Passion87-93
Two States of Politely Respectful Rasa94-138
Separation94-128
Union129-138
Argument for this Rasa139-143
Relationally Respectful Rasa144-178
Substantial Excitants145-155
Hari146-147
His Younger Relatives148-155
Enhancing Excitants156-157
Indications158-161
Responses162
Transitory Emotions163-165
Foundational Emotions166-168
Three Stages of Relationally Respectful Rasa169-171
Two States of Relationally Respectful Rasa172-178
Third Wave: Rasa of Companionable Devotion(pages 468-507)
Definition of Rasa of Companionable Devotion1
Substantial Excitants2-56
Hari3-7
His Friends8-56
Enhancing Excitants57-85
Age58-80
Form81
Horn82
Flute83
Conch84
Play85
Indications86-96
Responses97-101
Transitory Emotions102-104
Foundational Emotions105-109
Three Stages110-114
Two States115-133
The Special Quality of the Rasa of Companionship134-136
Fourth Wave: Rasa of Parentally Affectionate Devotion(pages 508-535)
Definition of Rasa of Parental Affection1
Substantial Excitants2-16
Krsna3-7
His Elders8-16
Enhancing Excitants17-40
Indications41-44
Responses45-48
Transitory Emotions49-51
Foundational Emotion52-55
Three Stages56-59
Two States60-76
Special Nature of the Rasa of Parental Affection77-79
The Mixture of Respect, Friendship, and Parental Affection80-84
Fifth Wave: Rasa of Amorous Devotion(pages 536-546)
Definition of Rasa of Amorous Devotion1-2
Substantial Excitants3-10
Krsna4-5
His Beloved Women (Radha) 6-10
Enhancing Excitants11-12
Indications13-14
Responses15
Transitory Emotions16-18
Foundational Emotions19-20
Special Quality of the Rasa of Amorous Devotion21-23
Two States24-35
Separation25-33
Union34-35
Closing Prayer of Western Quadrant36-37
NORTHERN QUADRANT
Explanation of the Secondary Devotional Rasas
First Wave: Rasa of Humorous Devotion(pages 548-558)
Mangalacarana for Northern Quadrant1
Contents of Northern Quadrant2-5
Definition of the Rasa of Humorous Devotion6
Substantial Excitants7-11
Enhancing Excitants12a
Indications12b
Transitory Emotions13a
Foundational Emotion13b
Six States of Humorous Love14-27
Smiling16-17
Slight Laughter18-19
Full Laughter20-21
Open Laughter22-23
Raucous Laughter24-25
Boisterous Laughter26-27
More on the Nature of Humorous Rasa28-30
Second Wave: Rasa of Wonderful Devotion (pages 560-564)
Definition of the Rasa of Wonderful Devotion1
Substantial Excitants2
Enhancing Excitants3a
Indications3b
Transitory Emotions4a
Two Types of Foundational Emotions4b
From Direct Perception5-10
From Inference11
The Pervasive Nature of Amazement12-13
Third Wave: Rasa of Heroic Devotion(pages 566-583)
Definition of the Rasa of Heroic Devotion1
Four Types of Heroes2-3
A) Hero in Battle4-24
Enhancing Excitants11-12
Indications13-16
Responses17a
Transitory Emotions17b
Foundational Emotion18-24
B) Two Types of Hero in Generosity: 25-46
One Who Gives Abundantly26-39
Enhancing Excitants27a
Indications27b
Transitory Emotions28
Foundational Emotion29-39
One Who Gives Up Valuables40-46
Enhancing Excitants41
Indications42a
Transitory Emotion42b
Foundational Emotion43-46
C) Hero in Compassion47-54
Enhancing Excitants48a
Indications48b
Transitory Emotions49
Foundational Emotion50-54
D) Hero in Righteousness55-61
Enhancing Excitants56a
Indications56b
Transitory Emotions56c
Foundational Emotion57-61
Fourth Wave: Rasa of Compassionate Devotion(pages 584-590)
Definition of the Rasa of Compassionate Devotion1
Substantial Excitants2-3
Enhancing Excitants4
Indications5
Responses6a
Transitory Emotions6b
Foundational Emotion7-16
Fifth Wave: Rasa of Furious Devotion(pages 592-602)
Definition of Rasa of Furious Devotion1
Substantial Excitants2-19
Enhancing Excitants20
Indications21-22
Responses23
Transitory Emotions24
Foundational Emotion25-33
Sixth Wave: Rasa of Dreadful Devotion(pages 604-608)
Definition of the Rasa of Dreadful Devotion1
Substantial Excitants2-8
Enhancing Excitants9a
Indications9b
Responses10
Transitory Emotions11
Foundational Emotions12-16
Seventh Wave: Rasa of Abhorrent Devotion(pages 610-614)
Definition of the Rasa of Abhorrent Devotion1
Substantial Excitants2-3
Indications4
Transitory Emotions5
Foundational Emotion6-12
More on the Nature of the Secondary Rasas13-14
Eight Wave: The Compatibility and Incompatibility of the Rasas(pages 616-646)
The Results of Various Combinations1-14
Neutral Combinations15
The Function of Compatible Rasas16-35
Secondary Rasas as Principal Rasas36-41
Definition of a Principal and Subordinate Rasa42-52
The Function of the Incompatible Rasas53-62
Avoiding Negative Effects in Combining Incompatible Rasas63-82
The Combination of All Rasas83-85
Ninth Wave: The Semblances of Rasas(pages 648-661)
Definition of a Semblance of a Rasa1
Three Kinds of Semblances of Rasas2-41
Uparasas3-32
Anurasas33-37
Aparasas38-41
Ordinary Dramas42
Closing Prayer of Northern Quadrantend
Date and Place of Compositionend
Glossary(page 663-666)
Bibliography(page 667-670)

The Bhaktirasamrtasindhu of Rupa Gosvamin

Item Code:
IDE722
Cover:
Hardcover
Edition:
2003
ISBN:
812081861X
Language:
English
Size:
9.7" X 7.5"
Pages:
744
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$120.00   Shipping Free - 4 to 6 days
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The Bhaktirasamrtasindhu of Rupa Gosvamin

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From the Jacket:

Bhakti of devotional love is the way of directly encountering the rasa in human experience. The aesthetic experience of rasa which is available to human beings was somehow not fully manifested and established from the 'intellectual' point of view. A glimpse of the rasa accomplished is available in the encounter of Uddhava and Gopies. Humans by nature are rational and logical beings. They prefer logical conclusions which have universal applicability. To logically establish the path of rasa was the endeavour of the seekers and thinkers of Vrindavan, which emerged as the 16th century intellectual, cultural and spiritual center of the Vraja region. Sri Rupa Gosvamin, a direct disciple of Sri Caitanya, was a shining member of the team of six Gosvamins. For him the emotionally experienced bhakti-prema-rasa is equally knowable and communicable. The human consciousness could reach the ocean of rasa through Sri Rupa Gosvamin's unique work, Sri Bhaktirasamrtasindhu. If there is an experience, it can be expressed and for an expression to be meaningful it has to be guided by a 'grammar' or a sastra. The famous trilogy of Bhaktirasamrtasindhu, Ujjvalanilamani and Natakacandrika of Sri Rupa Gosvamin provided for the first time a total sastra of bhaktirasa.

It is felt that the Bhaktirasamrtasindhu be made available to the English-knowing world as well. Dr. David Haberman has fulfilled this need by undertaking the stupendous task of translating this definitive text on bhaktirasa into English. The present edition includes the original Sanskrit in Devanagari, Dr. Haberman's translation and exegetical notes explaining all the intricate points of the text. An exhaustive table of contents and elaborate introduction, glossary and bibliography have greatly enhanced the value of the edition.

In the Bhaktirasamrtasindhu, the bhaktirasa is totally uncovered and consecrated in its own right. The human intellect drank to its hearts content this pure, unadulterated rasathrough this text. This comprehension gets manifested in the rich poetic, musical, dramatic, ritualistic and architectural traditions of the 16th century Vraja. IGNCA has covered some of these manifestations in the following Vraja Nathadwara Prakalpa studies: Evening Blossoms - The Temple Tradition of Sanjhi in Vrndavana (1996); Govindadeva - A Dialogue in Stone (1996); In Favour of Govindadevji - Historical documents relating to a deity of Vrndavana and Eastern Rajasthan (1999).

In the Vraja Prakalpa it is a major commitment to make available this wisdom of rasa tradition, the tradition of Srimad Bhagavata and the Natyasastra of Bharat culminating in the text of Bhaktirasamrtasindhu by Sri Rupa Gosvamin. The late Dr. Premlata Sharma, an esteemed scholars of rasa-sastra, undertook the responsibility of translating this famous rasa trilogy into Hindi. Her Hindi translation of the Bhaktirasamrtasindhu is being published. The English translation of the same text has been undertaken by Dr. David Haberman.

About the Author:

Dr. Haberman is currently on the faculty of College of Arts and Sciences, Department of Religious Studies, Indiana University. His translation of the Bhaktirasamrtasindhu not only shows his academic capability but also speaks his being soaken in the rasa parampara. Not only his two decade long physical journeys in the forests of Vraja-Vrndavana but also several of his well acclaimed published works on the cultural spiritual traditions of Vraja bear testimony to that.

Preface:

That translation is an art and not a science is never more evident than when a translator faces the choice of the audience for whom he will translate. I have chosen to present this text in English in a style intended for general academic audience, not primarily for philologists. I assume that Sanskritists can read the text in its original language, and that most of my readers have little or no knowledge of Sanskrit. Therefore, although I have tried to make this translation as literal possible, I have also aimed to make it accessible to the nonspecialist; many of the notes were written particularly with this in mind. Consequently, I have endeavored to translate every term into English. For example, although the Sanskrit term bhakti is not necessarily well translated as "devotion", I have elected to do so in order to make the term available in a form commonly found in English translation. In this sprit, I have also sometimes added introductory phrases in square brackets (e.g., [The words of Yasoda:]) where I have deemed them necessary for clear understanding. A brief glossary is included at the end of this book to assist in understanding technical terms. Moreover, although the Bhaktirasamrtasindhu is written in verse that is often beautifully poetic, I have chosen to translate the entire text into prose for the sake of clarity.

This work was produced in response to an invitation by the Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts, specifically for the Vraja Nathadvara Prakalpa series. A decision was made to publish a Devanagari edition and English translation of the version of the Bhaktirasamrtasindhu edited by Puridasa Mahasaya and published in Vrndavana in 1946 in the Bengali script. This version was based on four published manuscripts. I have found very little disparity between the various published editions and the unpublished manuscripts of the Bhaktirasamrtasindhu housed in the Vrndavana Research Institute. I have also made productive use of the edition published by Haridasa Dasa (Navadvipa: Haribola Kuthira, 1945), which includes the commentaries of Jiva Gosvamin, Visvanatha Cakravartin, and Mukundadasa Gosvamin, as well as a Bengali translation of the text by Haridasa himself, and the edition published by Syamadasa Hakima (Vrndavana: Harinama Press, 1981), which includes the commentaries of Jiva Gosvamin and Visvanatha Cakravartin, as well as a Hindi translation of the text by Syamadasa himslef. I found the Sanskrit commentaries as well as these Bengali and Hindi translation to tbe extremely useful throughout my own labors to produce a faithful translation of this text.

I had the great fortune of being able to translate most of the Bhaktirasamrtasindhu while living in the Radharamana temple compound in Vrndavana. I have many fond memories of sitting at my desk after being woken by the temple bells of the first service before sunrise, and working on this project before a window that overlooked Nidhivana, as the pink light of the rising sun began to illuminate its alluring gardens. I would be pleased if some of the flavor of these scenes has found its way into this translation.

Project Director's Note:

Vraja Nathadwara Prakalpa a project undertaken by Sri Caitanya Prema Samsthana and Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts is dedicated to the study of the great cultural heritage of Vraja, a centre of Indian culture. We envisage the study of Vraja as an integrated unit which should consider the geographic and environmental parameters of the area, its social and economic history, as well as the artistic, ritualistic and devotional dimensions, in order to elucidate what it may be that provides the parameters of this centre. These dimensions give a body to the centre, yet at the same time, it needs a system of ideas to work as its driving spirit.

The Indian tradition is the worshipper of the absolute as sat, cit and ananda or the satya, siva, sundara. The cognitive awareness (jnana), the volitional enterprise (karma) and the aesthetic experience (ananda). Although absolute and non-dual in its own nature, the ultimate experience manifests differently due to variety in the nature of seekers. The India mind had understood the human nature through the categories of cognitive, conative and emotive – and predominance of one of these traits characterizes the person. The predominantly cognitive seekers travel on the path of jnana. The more active conative beings follow karma and the emotive seekers take the route of bhakti. Despite the destination is common – the undifferentiated experience of ultimate; the same non-dual reality appears as absolute sat, absolute cit and absolute ananda, respectively. This sadhana or the journey is the process of uncovering the real from the unreal, via negativea; which tells us that knowledge is not not-knowledge (ajnana), consciousness is not inert (jada) and ananda is not suffering (duhkha).

The evaluation of the experience of the Absolute Knowledge, the Absolute Will and the Absolute feeling seems not possible. Logically speaking the cognitive process focusses upon the objective dimension of human experience. The experience of the Absolute Will is where the subject totally eclipses the object in the last analysis. But in the feeling mode a relational experience of subject with the object is a prerequisite, which exists even in the last analysis. Therefore, the path of felling or bhakti includes object (knowledge) and subject (will) and transcends them both in its relational category.

Bhakti or devotional love is the way of directly encountering the rasa is the human experience. The aesthetic experience of rasa which is beginninglessly and constantly available to us was somehow not fully manifest and established from the "intellectual' point of view. Whether it is the hymns of the Vedas or the deliberations of the Upanisads, whether it is the poetic tradition of Kalidasa or the Puranic tradition of Vedavyasa, the prema, bhakti and rasa never stopped flowing; however, intellectually unaccomplished it remained, A glimpse of the rasa accomplishment is available in the encounter between Uddhava and Gopis. After that encounter the wisdom of knowledge wanted to be a domicile of Vraja, the realm of prema rasa.

Humans, by nature, are rational and logical beings. They prefer logical conclusions which have universal applicability. To logically establish and communicate the path of rasa was the endeavour of the seekers and thinkers of Vrindavan which emerged as the distinguished 16th century intellectual, cultural, spiritual centre of the Vraja region. Sri Rupa Gosvamin was a shining member of the Vrindavan Gosvamin's club. For him the emotionally experienced bhakti-prema-rasa is equally knowable and communicable. The human rasa consciousness could reach the ocean of rasa through Sri Rupa Gosvamin's unique work, Sri Bhaktirasamrtasindhu.

The aesthetic experience of rasa is not only the summum bonum but also the human raison d' etre. If there is an experience it can be expressed and for an expression to be meaningful it had to be guided by a "grammar" or a sastra. The communication and application of the sastric traditions enriches the artistic creativity in media which in turn enriches the sastric process. The famous trilogy of Bhaktirasamrtasindhu, Ujjvalanilamani and Natakacandrika of Sri Rupa Gosvamin provided for the first time a total sastra of bhakti-rasa. In the Bhaktirasamrtasindhu the bhakti-rasa is totally uncovered and consecrated in its own right. The human intellect drank to its hearts content this pure, unadulterated rasa through this text. This comprehension gets manifested in the rich poetic, musical, dramatic, ritualistic and architectural traditions of the 16th century Vraja. We have covered some of these manifestations in the following Vraja Nathadwara Prakalpa studies: Evening Blossoms – The temple tradition of Sanjhi in Vrndavana (1996); Govindadeva – A Dialogue in Stone (1996); In Favour of Govindadevji – Historical documents relating to a deity of Vrndavan and Eastern Rajasthan (1999).

The Prakalpa is aware of a peculiar transitory moment in our scholastic history where the interpreters of the sastras in Sanskrit are getting fewer by the day. Hence, it is imperative that this wisdom is made available to the future generations through translations in Indian languages and possibly also in English.

In the Vraja Nathadwara Prakalpa it is a major commitment to make available this wisdom of rasa tradition, the tradition of Srimad Bhagavata and the Natyasastra of Bharat culminating to the text of Bhaktirasamrtasindhu by Sri Rupa Gosvamin. The late Dr. Premlata Sharma, an esteemed scholar of rasa-sastra, undertook the responsibility of translating this famous rasa trilogy into Hindi. Fortunately before departing from this world Dr. Premlata Sharma had finished her work and it is being put together for press by her able successor, Dr. Urmila Sharma. Her Hindi translation of the Bhaktirasamrtasindhu is being published as VNP Series No.3, the first volume of which was given a very appreciative scholarly reception. Her second and third volume of Bhaktirasamrtasindhu are in press.

It was also felt that these works of Sri Rupa Gosvamin be made available to the non-Hindi speaking world as well. We are greatful to Dr. David Haberman for following this need by undertaking the stupendous task of translating this definitive text on bhakti-rasa in to English. Any translation necessarily brings in the element of interpretation. In the realm of scholarship where interpretation is involved, differences of viewpoint will be natural and are even welcome. Hence, we have decided to included the original Sanskrit text in Devanagari for the discerning scholarly community. An exhaustive table of contents will also serve as an index to the volume. An exhaustive introduction on the author, text and methodology together with the endnotes, glossary and the bibliography will be found as useful tools.

We are pleased to present the English translation of the Bhaktirasamrtasindhu by Dr. David Haberman. This translation not only shows his academic capability but also brings out his being soaked in the rasa-parampara. Not his two decade long physical journeys in the forests of Vraja-Vrindavan but several of his well acclaimed published works on the cultural-spiritual traditions of Vraja bear witness to that.

Table of Contents

Introduction
The Yoga of Divine Emotionsxxix
Bhakti: A New Kind of Religion Appears in Vrajaxxx
The Essence of Rasa: A Brief Discussion of Rasa Theoryxxxvi
The Ocean: Structure and Content of the Bhaktirasamrtasindhuxlix
Translation of the Bhaktirasamrtasindhu
EASTERN QUADRANTsloka
Explanation of the Categories of Devotion to the Lord
First Wave: The General Characteristics of Devotion(pages 2-17)
Prayer for Success (mangalacarana)1-6
Contents of Eastern Quadrant7-9
Definition of the Highest Devotion10-16
The Six Qualities of Devotion17-43
The Destruction of Difficulties18
Two Types of Sin19-23
Seeds of Sin24
Ignorance25-26
The Bestowal of Auspiciousness27
Delight and Attraction28
Good Qualities29
Happiness30-32
The Trivialization of Moksa33-34
The Difficulty of Attainment35-37
The Special Concentrated Joy38-40
The Attraction of Krsna41-43
Three Categories of Devotion44
Superiority of Devotion over Logic45-46
Second Wave: Sadhana Bhakti(pages 18-97)
Threefold Division of Devotion1
Definition of Sadhana Bhakti2-5
Vaidhi Bhakti6-13
Eligibility for Vaidhi Bhakti14-16
Highest17
Average18
Lowest19
Eligibility Mentioned in the Gita20-21
The Obstructions of Ordinary Enjoyment and Moksa22-54
The Limited Value of Moksa55-57
Superiority of Govinda over Narayana58-59
The Universal Eligibility for Bhakti60-71
Vaidhi Bhakti Defined in Haribhaktivilasa72
Definition of a Practice73
The 64 Practices of Vaidhi Bhakti74-95
Illustrated Explanations of the 64 Practices96-237
1) Surrender at the Feet of a Guru97
2) Initiation and Instruction Regarding Krsna98
3) Serving the Guru with Confidence99
4) Following the Path of the Saints100-102
5) Inquiry into the True Nature of Things103
6) Renouncing Ordinary Pleasures for the Sake of Krsna104
7) Living in Sacred Places105-107
8) Acceptance of Only What is Necessary108
9) Honoring the Festival Days of Hari109
10) Respect for Holy Trees110
11) Keeping Away from People Who Have Turned Away from Krsna111-112
12) Avoiding the Attendance of Numerous Disciples113
13) Refraining from Zealous Involvement in Grand Projects113
14) Giving up Excessive Attachment to Books, etc. 113
15) Avoiding Ungenerous Behavior114
16) Not Being Overwhelmed by Sorrow115
17) Showing No Disrespect for Other Gods116
18) Refraining from Causing Distress to Other Beings117
19) Avoiding Offense in Service and Chanting the Name118-120
20) Not Tolerating Abuse Toward Krsna121
21) Wearing the Marks of a Vaisnava122
22) Wearing the Letters of Hari's Name123-124
23) Wearing Flower Garlands125-126
24) Dancing Before Krsna127-128
25) Prostrating129
26) Rising Respectfully from a Seat130
27) Politely Accompanying131
28) Visiting Temples132-134
29) Circumambulation135-136
30) Worship137-139
31) Assistance in Temples140-143
32) Singing144
33) Congregational Praise145-148
34) Silent Chanting149-150
35) Praying151-156
36) Reciting Hymns of Praise157-159
37) Eating Offered Food160
38) Drinking Water use to Wash the Deity's Feet161
39) Smelling the Deity's Sweet Fragrance162-164
40) Touching the Divine Image165
41)Looking at the Divine Image166
42)Witnessing the Worship167-169
43) Listening170-173
44) Perceiving the Grace of the Lord174
45) Remembering the Lord175-177
46) Meditating on the Lord178-182
47) Servitude toward the Lord183-187
48) Friendship for the Lord188-193
49) Fully Entrusting One's Self to the Lord194-198
50) Offering Things Dear to Oneself199
51) Making All Efforts for His Benefit200
52) Surrendering Completely201-202
53) Serving the Sacred Tulasi Plant203-205
54) Serving His Scriptures206-210
55) Serving Mathura211-213
56) Serving Vaisnavas214-219
57) Observing Great Festivals220
58) Respect for the Month of Karttika221-223
59) Celebrating the Day of Krsna's Birth224
60) Serving the Divine Image225
61) Enjoying the Sri Bhagavata Purana226-227
62) Association with Devotees228-229
63) Singing the Names of the Lord230-234
64) Living in the Blessed Circle of Mathura235-237
The Special Power of the Last Five Practices (60-64) 238
The Divine Form239
Sri Bhagavata240
Krsna's Devotees241
The Divine Name242
Blesses Circle of Mathura243
The Extraordinary Nature of these Practices244
Divine Love is the Primary Fruit245
Ordinarily Prescribed Ritual Actions are Insufficient246-247
Knowledge and Renunciation are of Little Value248-250
The Goal of Knowledge and Renunciation Achieved through Devotion251-253
Proper Renunciation254-259
Intellectual Discrimination Not a Practice of Devotion260
The Place of Ethical Restraints261-263
Perfection through One or Several Primary Practices264-268
Vaidhi Bhakti Equated to Maryada Marga269
Raganuga Bhakti270
Ragatmika Bhakti271-272
Two Types of Ragatmika273-275
Unfavorable and Favourable Emotions276-282
Amorous Ragatmika Bhakti283-287
Relational Ragatmika Bhakti288-289
Two Types of Raganuga290
Eligibility for Raganuga Bhakti291-293
The Practice of Raganuga294-296
Imitation of Amorous Bhakti297-304
Imitation of Relational Bhakti305-308
Raganuga Bhakti Equated to Pusti Marga309
Third Wave: Bhava Bhakti(pages 98-114)
Definition of Bhava (Love) 1-5
Two Ways a Bhava is Born6-23
From Practice7-14
From Grace15-23
Love is fivefold24
Examples of Indications25-40
Patience27-28
Fruitful Use of Time29
Disinterest30-31
Lack of Pride32-33
Hopefulness34-35
Longing36-37
Singing the Lord's Name38
Proclaiming His Qualities39
Delight in His Places40
Defective Love41-44
Two Types of Semblance of Love45-56
The Sudden Appearance of a Bhava57-60
The Nature of Love61
Fourth Wave: Prema Bhakti(pages 116-123)
Definition of Prema (Supreme Love) 1-3
Two Types of Prema4-14
Born from a Bhava5-18
Born from Grace9-14
The Stages of Love15-20
Closing Prayer of Eastern Quadrant21
SOUTHERN QUADRANT
Explanation of the General Characteristics of Devotional Rasa
First Wave: The Excitants(pages 124-231)
Mangalacarana for Southern Quadrant1
Contents of Southern Quadrant2-3
The Development of Rasa4-11
General Definition of the Excitants, Indications, Responses, and Transitory Emotions12-15
The Two Types of Excitants14-15
The Substantial Excitants16
Sri Krsna17
The Form of Another18
His Own Form19
Concealed20-21
Manifest22
Krsna's 64 Qualities23-217
1) Beautiful Body45-46
2) Excellent Features47-51
3) Good-Looking52-54
4) Brilliant55-59
5) Strong60-62
6) Youthful63-64
7) Conversant in Many Languages65-66
8) Truthful67-69
9) Pleasant in Speech70-71
10) Eloquent72-74
11) Learned75-78
12) Intelligent79-81
13Witty82-83
14) Artistic84-85
15) Adroit86-87
16) Dexterous88-90
17) Grateful91-93
18) Resolute94-97
19) Knowledgeable of Right Place, Time, and Receptacle98-99
20) Mindful of Scripture100-101
21) Pure102-104
22) Self-Controlled105-106
23) Persistent107-108
24) Tolerant109-110
25) Patient111-113
26) Profound114-116
27) Steadfast117-119
28) Impartial120-122
29) Generous123-125
30) Virtuous126-128
31) Brave129-131
32) Compassionate132-134
33) Respectful135-136
34) Favorable137-138
35) Humble139-140
36) Modest141-142
37) Protective to Those Who have Taken His Shelter143-144
38) Happy145-147
39) A Friend of Devotees148-150
40) Captivated by Love151-153
41) Beneficent to Everyone154-155
42) Imposing156-157
43) Famous158-160
44) Impassioner of the World161-163
45) Partial to the Good164-165
46) Charmer of Women166-168
47) Worthy of Everyone's Worship169-170
48) Prosperous171-173
49) Eminent174-175
50) Supreme176-179
51) Always Maintains His Form180-181
52) Omniscient182-183
53) Ever Fresh and New184-186
54) Concentrated Form of Being, Consciousness, and Bliss187-191
55) Endowed with Spiritual Powers192-193
56) Endowed with Inconceivably Magnificent Energy194-198
57) Has Millions of Universes Existing within His Body199-201
58) Is the Origin of All Incarnations202-203
59) Gives Salvation to Slain Enemies204-206
60) Attracts All Those Who are Absorbed in the Self207-208
61) Sweetness of Divine Love Play209-210
62) Supreme Love211-212
63) Sweetness of Flute213-214
64) Sweetness of Form215-217
The Infinite Nature of His Qualities218-219
Fullest, Fuller, and Full Forms of Hari220-223
The Four Types of Heroic Lover224-240
1) Boldly Noble226-229
2) Boldly Amorous230-232
3) Boldly Tranquil233-235
4) Boldly Haughty236-240
Hari Encompasses All Contradictions241-243
Hari is Free of All Faults244-248
The Source of All Incarnations249-250
Eight Special Virtues251-271
A) Brilliance253-254
B) Pleasantness255-256
C) Sweetness257-258
D) Auspiciousness259-260
E) Stability261-262
F) Efficacy263-266
G) Amorousness267-268
H) Generosity269-271
Krsna's Assistants272
Krsna's Devotees273-300
Practitioners276-279
Perfected280-289
Eternally Perfected290-291
The Enhancing Excitants301-384
1) Qualities303-342
Physical Qualities304-307
Age (Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence)308-335
Beauty336-337
Complexion338-339
Tenderness340-341
Vocal and Mental Qualities Identified342
2) Actions343-345
3) Ornaments346-361
Clothing347-353
Adornments354-357
Jewelry358-361
4) Smile362
5) Fragrance363
6) Flutes364-372
7) Horn373-374
8) Anklets375
9) Conch376-377
10) Footprints378-379
11) Abode380
12) Tulasi381
13) Devotees382-383
14) Festivals384
Second Wave: The Indications(pages 232-240)
Definition of Indications1-3
1) Dancing4
2) Rolling on the Ground5-6
3) Singing7
4) Shrieking8-9
5) Twisting the Body10
6) Roaring11
7) Mouth Gaping12
8) Sighing13
9) Disregarding the Opinion of Others14-15
10)Salivating16
11) Laughing Loudly17-18
12) Whirling19
13) Hiccuping20
Rare Indications21
Third Wave: The Responses(pages 242-271)
Definition of Responses1-2
Affectionate Responses3-8
Accumulated Responses9-11
Harsh Responses12-14
The Eight Responses15-60
1) Stupefaction21-27
2) Perspiration28-31
3) Goose Bumps32-36
4) Broken Voice37-42
5) Trembling43-46
6) Change of Color47-52
7) Tears53-57
8) Loss of Consciousness58-60
The Various Degrees of Responses61-70
Smoldering Responses71-72
Glowing Responses73-75
Flaming Responses76-78
Blazing Responses79-81
Four Semblances of Responses82-95
From a Semblance of Love84-85
From a Semblance of Pure Luminosity86-88
Those Without Pure Luminosity89-91
Those Which Are Contrary92-95
Lack of Virtue in the Semblances96
Fourth Wave: The Transitory Emotions(pages 272-352)
Definition of Transitory Emotions1-3
The Thirty-Three Transitory Emotions4-190
1) Indifference7-12
2) Grief13-20
3) Depression21-25
4) Fatigue26-30
5) Weariness31-34
6) Intoxication35-40
7) Arrogance41-47
8) Apprehension48-53
9) Alarm54-58
10) Agitation59-78
11) Madness79-85
12) Dementedness86-89
13) Sickness90-91
14) Confusion92-98
15) Death99-102
16) Laziness103-106
17) Mental Inertia107-112
18) Shame113-117
19) Dissimulation118-128
20) Recollection129-131
21) Speculation132-135
22) Anxiety136-139
23) Understanding140-143
24) Contentment144-147
25) Happiness148-150
26) Impatience151-154
27) Wrath155-158
28) Intolerance159-163
29) Envy164-167
30) Carelessness168-170
31) Sleepiness171-176
32) Dreaming177-178
33) Awakening179-190
The Presence of Other Emotions in Transitory Emotions191-204
The Two Types of Transitory Emotions205-223
Dependent on Another206-215
Independent216-223
The Semblance of Transitory Emotions224-231
Antagonistic225-227
Improper228-231
The Four States of Transitory Emotions232-248
Manifestation233-234
Combination235-243
Medley244-246
Resolution247-248
Operative Nature of Transitory Emotions249-255
The Way Transitory Emotions Operate on Different Kinds of Minds256-270
Fifth Wave: The Foundational Emotions(pages 354-394)
Definition of a Foundational Emotion1-2
Two Modes of Primary Love3-5
Self-Supporting4
Supportive of Another5
The Five Types of Primary Love6-37
Nondistinct Love8-21
Common9-11
Clear12-15
Peaceful16-21
Favorable Types of Love22-24
Single25
Mixed26
Respect27-29
Friendship30-32
Parental Affection33-35
Amorous Love36-37
The Nature of Primary Love38
Definition of Secondary Love39
The Seven Types of Secondary Love40-72
Humorous Love52-54
Amazed Love55-56
Energetic Love57-59
Sorrowful Love60-62
Angry Love63-66
Fearful Love67-70
Disgusted Love71-72
More on the Nature of Emotions73-76
Cool and Hot Emotions77-78
The Manner in which Foundational Emotions become Rasa79-112
The Number of Bhakti Rasas113-117
The Color of Bhakti Rasas118
The Gods of Bhakti Rasas119
More on the Nature of Bhakti Rasa120-121
The Pleasurable Nature of All Bhakti Rasas122-127
Emotional Rapture (bhavollasa)128
Those Ineligible for Bhakti Rasa129-131
Definition of a Rasa132
Closing Prayer of Southern Quadrant134
WESTERN QUADRANT
Explanation of the Primary Devotional Rasas
First Wave: Rasa of Peaceful Devotion(pages 396-411)
Mangalacarana for Western Quadrant1
Contents of Western Quadrant2-3
Definition of Peaceful Devotional Rasa4-6
Substantial Excitants7-17
Four-Armed Visnu8-10
Peaceful Devotees11-17
Enhancing Excitants18-23
Indications24-29
Responses30-32
Transitory Emotions33-34
Two Types of Foundational Emotions35-37
Impartial Love36
Concentrated Love37
Two Types of Peaceful Rasa38-42
Yearning for a Vision39-40
Direct Vision41-42
Further Discussion of Peaceful Rasa43-51
Second Wave: Rasa of Respectful Devotion(pages 412-467)
Definition of Respectful Devotional Rasa1-3
Two Types of Respectful Devotional Rasa4
Politely Respectful Rasa5-144
Substantial Excitants6-56
Hari7-15
Four Kinds of Servants16-56
Enhancing Excitants57-60
Indications61-65
Responses66-68
Transitory Emotions69-75
Foundational Emotion76-77
Three Stages of Politely Respectful Rasa78-93
Supreme Love81-83
Tenderness84-86
Passion87-93
Two States of Politely Respectful Rasa94-138
Separation94-128
Union129-138
Argument for this Rasa139-143
Relationally Respectful Rasa144-178
Substantial Excitants145-155
Hari146-147
His Younger Relatives148-155
Enhancing Excitants156-157
Indications158-161
Responses162
Transitory Emotions163-165
Foundational Emotions166-168
Three Stages of Relationally Respectful Rasa169-171
Two States of Relationally Respectful Rasa172-178
Third Wave: Rasa of Companionable Devotion(pages 468-507)
Definition of Rasa of Companionable Devotion1
Substantial Excitants2-56
Hari3-7
His Friends8-56
Enhancing Excitants57-85
Age58-80
Form81
Horn82
Flute83
Conch84
Play85
Indications86-96
Responses97-101
Transitory Emotions102-104
Foundational Emotions105-109
Three Stages110-114
Two States115-133
The Special Quality of the Rasa of Companionship134-136
Fourth Wave: Rasa of Parentally Affectionate Devotion(pages 508-535)
Definition of Rasa of Parental Affection1
Substantial Excitants2-16
Krsna3-7
His Elders8-16
Enhancing Excitants17-40
Indications41-44
Responses45-48
Transitory Emotions49-51
Foundational Emotion52-55
Three Stages56-59
Two States60-76
Special Nature of the Rasa of Parental Affection77-79
The Mixture of Respect, Friendship, and Parental Affection80-84
Fifth Wave: Rasa of Amorous Devotion(pages 536-546)
Definition of Rasa of Amorous Devotion1-2
Substantial Excitants3-10
Krsna4-5
His Beloved Women (Radha) 6-10
Enhancing Excitants11-12
Indications13-14
Responses15
Transitory Emotions16-18
Foundational Emotions19-20
Special Quality of the Rasa of Amorous Devotion21-23
Two States24-35
Separation25-33
Union34-35
Closing Prayer of Western Quadrant36-37
NORTHERN QUADRANT
Explanation of the Secondary Devotional Rasas
First Wave: Rasa of Humorous Devotion(pages 548-558)
Mangalacarana for Northern Quadrant1
Contents of Northern Quadrant2-5
Definition of the Rasa of Humorous Devotion6
Substantial Excitants7-11
Enhancing Excitants12a
Indications12b
Transitory Emotions13a
Foundational Emotion13b
Six States of Humorous Love14-27
Smiling16-17
Slight Laughter18-19
Full Laughter20-21
Open Laughter22-23
Raucous Laughter24-25
Boisterous Laughter26-27
More on the Nature of Humorous Rasa28-30
Second Wave: Rasa of Wonderful Devotion (pages 560-564)
Definition of the Rasa of Wonderful Devotion1
Substantial Excitants2
Enhancing Excitants3a
Indications3b
Transitory Emotions4a
Two Types of Foundational Emotions4b
From Direct Perception5-10
From Inference11
The Pervasive Nature of Amazement12-13
Third Wave: Rasa of Heroic Devotion(pages 566-583)
Definition of the Rasa of Heroic Devotion1
Four Types of Heroes2-3
A) Hero in Battle4-24
Enhancing Excitants11-12
Indications13-16
Responses17a
Transitory Emotions17b
Foundational Emotion18-24
B) Two Types of Hero in Generosity: 25-46
One Who Gives Abundantly26-39
Enhancing Excitants27a
Indications27b
Transitory Emotions28
Foundational Emotion29-39
One Who Gives Up Valuables40-46
Enhancing Excitants41
Indications42a
Transitory Emotion42b
Foundational Emotion43-46
C) Hero in Compassion47-54
Enhancing Excitants48a
Indications48b
Transitory Emotions49
Foundational Emotion50-54
D) Hero in Righteousness55-61
Enhancing Excitants56a
Indications56b
Transitory Emotions56c
Foundational Emotion57-61
Fourth Wave: Rasa of Compassionate Devotion(pages 584-590)
Definition of the Rasa of Compassionate Devotion1
Substantial Excitants2-3
Enhancing Excitants4
Indications5
Responses6a
Transitory Emotions6b
Foundational Emotion7-16
Fifth Wave: Rasa of Furious Devotion(pages 592-602)
Definition of Rasa of Furious Devotion1
Substantial Excitants2-19
Enhancing Excitants20
Indications21-22
Responses23
Transitory Emotions24
Foundational Emotion25-33
Sixth Wave: Rasa of Dreadful Devotion(pages 604-608)
Definition of the Rasa of Dreadful Devotion1
Substantial Excitants2-8
Enhancing Excitants9a
Indications9b
Responses10
Transitory Emotions11
Foundational Emotions12-16
Seventh Wave: Rasa of Abhorrent Devotion(pages 610-614)
Definition of the Rasa of Abhorrent Devotion1
Substantial Excitants2-3
Indications4
Transitory Emotions5
Foundational Emotion6-12
More on the Nature of the Secondary Rasas13-14
Eight Wave: The Compatibility and Incompatibility of the Rasas(pages 616-646)
The Results of Various Combinations1-14
Neutral Combinations15
The Function of Compatible Rasas16-35
Secondary Rasas as Principal Rasas36-41
Definition of a Principal and Subordinate Rasa42-52
The Function of the Incompatible Rasas53-62
Avoiding Negative Effects in Combining Incompatible Rasas63-82
The Combination of All Rasas83-85
Ninth Wave: The Semblances of Rasas(pages 648-661)
Definition of a Semblance of a Rasa1
Three Kinds of Semblances of Rasas2-41
Uparasas3-32
Anurasas33-37
Aparasas38-41
Ordinary Dramas42
Closing Prayer of Northern Quadrantend
Date and Place of Compositionend
Glossary(page 663-666)
Bibliography(page 667-670)
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