About the Book:
Apabhramsa (Ap.) is the name of the tertiary stage of the Middle Indo-Aryan, current during the period between A.D. 500-1200. As Apabhramsa forms the previous stage of modern Indo-Aryan languages like Hindi, Gujarati, Marathi, Bengali etc., its study is essential not only for its literature but also for the formation of modern Indian languages. The present volume is a chrono-regional study of nearly all the edited Ap. Texts available upto 1945, as this is a reprint of the Thesis accepted by the University of Bombay for the degree of Ph.D. in September 1946. The Ap. Texts were classified according to the place of their composition and the linguistic data was arranged in a chronological sequence and thus the space-time context of each form was determined. The texts were regionally grouped as: (1) Western Apabhramsa, the area of present day Gujarati, Hindi, Rajasthani dialects; (2) Southern Ap., roughly Marathi speaking area and its adjoining districts; and (3) Eastern Ap., the area of modern Bengali, Bihari, Oriya. No text representing Northern Ap. Belonging to this period was then available. After illuminating the term Ap. and fixing its period and classifying the texts in their space-time context, the author offers a general conspectus of the phonological and morphological features of A.p. in the Introduction. Then follow sections on Phonology, Declension, Conjugation, Nominal Stem-formation according to diachronic method connecting the evolved linguistics features to its modern descendant wherever possible. The work ends with an Index Verborum which lists all the words occurring in the study with their Sk. & Pkt.etymoligies as well as references to their cognates in the modern Indo-Aryan As Dr. Siddheshwar Varma says, "It is the history of Indo-Aryan between A.D.500-1200".
About the Author:
Dr. G. V. Tagare, M.A., B.T., Ph.D. (b. 1911) is a versatile writer on Indology, Linguistics and Education. After a brilliant academic career he joined Bhor State Service and was the Director of Public Instruction of the State in Indian Union. After merger, in the Maharashtra Education Service, he worked as a Professor of Education in the Secondary Training (S.M.T.T.) College at Kolhapur. Besides contributing papers on Education (including Audiovisual Education) to various educational journals he carried out research in Linguistics (Middle Indo-Aryan and Marathi) and discovered a number of old unpublished Sanskrit and Marathi MSS. These papers were published in various Indological and other research journals.
The present dissertation on Apabhrarhsa was accepted by the University of Bombay for the degree of Ph.D. in September, 1946. It required six long years to complete this work as I was then working as a secondary teacher at Bhor where there are no library facilities for such type of research work. If I could complete this work in spite of indifferent health and under very trying circumstances it is due to the encouragement of His Highness the Rajasaheb of Bhor and the infinite patience with which my esteemed Gum, Dr. S. M. Katre, went through all my material and made valued suggestions from time to time, giving me loan facilities of important books on the subject whenever required.
"A Historical Grammar of Apabhra1i1éa" is such a vast subject as would require the study of a lifetime. The application of the chrono-regional method of study to Apabhramsa literature, published so far, has its own obvious limitations and the time-space context of some Apabhramsa texts being still unsettled, one has to accept the earlier and later dates of the texts as the upper and lower terminii of the linguistic phenomena represented therein. As this is the first historical grammar of Apabhramsa, the chrono—regional method of study had to be emphasised. Though I had to criticise occasionally some of the theories of the great savants like Pischel, Grierson, Bloch and others, I express my indebtedness to all of them as early pioneers in the field but for whose labours the present work would have been impossible.
It was intended to add some more sections and chapters on Reductions and Extensions in Apabhramsa, NIA and Apabhramsa, Apabhramsa and Extra—Indian Prakrits and other topics in Apabhramsa linguistics in general; but they are published separately in Oriental journals as they could not be included under Historical Grammar.
His Highness, Raja Shrimant Sir Raghunathrao Shankarrao alias; Babasaheb Pandit Panta Sachiv, K.C.I.E., the Rajasaheb of Bhor, to whom the present work is most respectfully dedicated, is already known as a progressive ruler. His patronage to learning and munificent donations to educational, social, humanitarian and other cultural activities (even outside the State) have given him a highly respected position in the hearts of his subjects as well as in those of others in the Indian Dominion.
Born in 1878 in the historical family of Panta Sachivs who saved the Maratha Kingdom in the most critical period of the early 18th century, His Highness inherited a noble tradition of self-sacrifice. After receiving his higher education in the Deccan College, Poona, the Raja- saheb carefully equipped himself with the necessary accomplishments and varied practical administrative experience both at Poona and in the State. Even as a prince, he was noted for his love of learning, progressive democratic views, sociable nature and nobility of character. Small wonder it is that his accession to the gadi on 18th July, 1922 inaugurated a new era in the history of the State. At the very outset the Rajasaheb removed the longstanding and legitimate grievances of his subjects by giving them freedom of thought, speech and association and by abolishing certain invidious mediaeval types of taxes. Removal of untouchability by law marks the liberal spirit of his administration on the social side. In order to improve the efficiency of the Public services of the State, His Highness had to overhaul and to reform the State departments with their various branches of administration.
The most outstanding feature of his reign is the rapid progress of constitutional reforms. Soon after his accession in 1922 he introduced representative institutions as part of the administrative machinery of the State. The establishment of the Executive Council (1924), the Legislative Council (1928), and Local Self-Government bodies was but a beginning of granting responsible Government in the State. The Government of Bhor State Act (1932), the Diamond jubilee Celebrations of the Rajasaheb (1938), the Silver jubilee of his Accession to the gadi (1947) were important landmarks in the rapid process of transformation of a mediaeval type of benevolent autocracy into a limited monarchy of the English type. After the Independence Day on 15th August, 1947, His Highness showed a statesmanlike foresight in the interest of his subjects by entering into the proposed Union of the Deccan States. But his greatest act of sell-renunciation – perhaps the noblest one that an Indian Prince can do is his agreement to integrate his State in the free Dominion of India from 1st March 1948. (The State of Bhor has been merged in the Indian Dominion since 8th March, 1948).
During the quarter of a century since his accession, His Highness made vast improvements in nation—building departments in the interest of Public well-being, convenience and comforts by constructing roads, bridges and buildings, opening of new charitable dispensaries and by providing other amenities of life. It is, however, in the field of education that His Highness took keen interest from the very beginning. Free Primary Education in the State, founding free—studentships and scholarships for deserving students receiving secondary and collegiate education, housing schools and libraries in excellent buildings, special facilities to Harijan pupils in the form of books and scholarships, and donations to educational and cultural institutions both inside and outside the State, founding of a prize of Rs. 500 in the name of the founder of the dynasty for encouraging good works in Marathi Literature are but a few instances of his love of learning. Actuated by this noble sentiment, the Rajasaheb granted study leave and gave a munificent donation of Rs. 3,000 to the Deccan College Research Institute, Poona, for publishing this dissertation. It is, therefore, no mere formality when I respectfully dedicate this work to him.
I owe a great debt of gratitude to my teacher Dr. S. M. Katre. If there -is any real contribution to our knowledge of NIA linguistics in this work, the whole credit is due to him; the shortcomings, however, are due to my limitations. It is again Dr. Katre who arranged for the printing of this dissertation and it is due to his meticulous care that we have such a fine edition of a linguistic work. I am thankful to my referee Professor Dr. Siddheshwar Varma, MA., D.Litt., of Jammu for his critical appreciation of my work. Professor Dr. A.M. Upadhye, M.A., D.Litt. of Kolhapur, in spite of his onerous undertakings, always found time to respond to my queries promptly and was kind enough to read the type-script of my thesis before it was sent to the press and offer many useful suggestions, a number of which have been incorporated herein. My thanks are due to Professor Dr. P.L. Vaidya, M.A., D.Litt. of Poona and Professor Dr. H.L. Jain, M.A., D.Litt. of Nagpur for their prompt replies to my queries about Apabhramsa works and their space-time location; and lastly to my wife Mrs. Shanta Tagare who goaded me on to complete this work.
The staff of the Examiner Press in Bombay have shown a rare patience and competence in dealing with the complicated typography patience and competence in dealing with the complicated typography of this work, and my thanks are due to the Superintendent for the great care that he has bestowed on the actual printing.
In conclusion, I would very much welcome constructive criticism from my readers to help me further in my studies.
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