The author has in this work clearly marked the principal stages of Indian logic in the vast period of about two thousand years beginning from 640 B.C. and has traced how from Anviksiki - the science of debate, Indian logic developed into the science of knowledge - Pramanasastra and then into the science of dialectics - Prakarana of Tarkasastra.
The treatment of the subject is both historical and critical. The author has traced some Greek influence on Indian logic. For instance he has shown how the five-membered syllogism of Aristotle found its way through Alexandria, Syria and other countries into Taxila and got amalgamated with Nyaya doctrine of inference.
The book is one of the pioneer works on the subject. It has drawn on original sources exhaustively. Besides the preface, introduction, foreword and table of contents, the work contains several appendices and indexes.
It pleased His Excellency the Earl of Ronaldshay, G.C.I.E., the Governor of Bengal, to utter these memorable words while presiding at the Convocation of the Calcutta University in the year 1918 :- “That an Indian student should pass through a course of philosophy at an Indian University without ever hearing mention of, shall I say, Sankara, the thinker who, perhaps, his carried idealism further than any other thinker of any other age or country, or of the subtleties of the Nyaya system which has been handed down through immemorial ages and is to-day the pride and glory of the tols of Navadvipa, does, indeed, appear lo me to be a profound anomaly.”
Words like these coming from one who is himself a keen and ardent student of Indian Philosophy and a scrupulous and sympathetic ruler, came upon me, who have the good fortune to belong to Navadvipa, “with double sway” and supplied the inspiration which sustained me in this my humble attempt to present a history of Indian Logic or Nyaya Darsana before the English-knowing public.
It was my revered preceptors Mahamahopadhyaya Mohesh Chandra Nyayaratna, C. I.E., Principal, Sanskrit-College, Calcutta, and Mahamahopadhyaya Jadunath Sarvabhauma of Navadvipa, who (the first by his lecture on Bhasaparicheda and Siddhanta-muktavali, and the second by his lectures on Kusumanjali and Atma-tattva-viveka) first awakened in me an interest in the study of Indian Logic. That was about the year 1892. Subsequently I read Modern Logic, viz. Tattvacintamani and Sabda-sakti-prakasika under Pandit Bamacharan Nyayacharya and Raghunatha Siromani’s Didhiti under Pandit Jibanath Misra, both of Benares College.
I searched out and studied most of the books and manuscripts on the subject of Hindu Logic to be found in the Sanskrit College library and the Asiatic Society of Bengal and occasionally consulted works supplied by the Deccan College, Poona, and Benares Sanskrit College. I thus put myself in the way of acquiring some acquaintance with Indian Logic and from time to time published several books and articles on Nyaya.
With regard to Jaina Logic, I derived valuable help from my teacher, Sastra-visarada Jainacarya Vijayadharma Suri, Pandit Indravijaya Upedhyaya and occasionally from Pandit Haragovind Seth Nyayatirtha. I gathered Jaina books from various Jaina Societies and Publishing Houses such as those at Benares, Azimganj, Arrah, Bhavnagar, etc. I also used a large number of Jaina manuscripts, of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Deccan College, Poona, etc., besides those in the possession of the aforesaid Venerable Vijayadharma Suri.
As regards Buddhistic Logic, I could not get much help from Pali sources, because neither in the Buddhistic Soriptures introduced into Ceylon in 254 B.C by Mahendra, son of Asoka, nor in the Buddhistic books recorded in writing in 88 B.C. by Vatta-gamini, is there any trace of a systematic culture of Nyaya. Even during my visit to Ceylon in 1909 (Appendix K), I did not come across in that island any evidence of Nyaya-study. On this subject I have derived materials to some extent from Chinese, but, mostly from Tibetan sources. Professor Kimura occasionally helped me in dealing with Chinese materials. Concerning the Tibetan sources almost all the materials were derived from Bstan-hgyur some volumes whereof were lent to me by the India office through the courtesy of Dr. F. W. Thomas. Through the kindness of Lord Curzon, the then viceroy of India, I was enabled to retain temporarily for my use some other volumes of Bstan-hgyur brought down from Gyantes during the Tibet Mission of 1904. To secure further materials bearing on the subject of Buddhistic Logic I visited Labrang and Pamyangchi monasteries in June 1907 and October 1908, respectively (Appendices I and J), and came across a world of facts for observation and comment. Since the opening of increased intercourse between India and Tibet consequent upon the Tashi Lama’s visit to India in 1905 (of which an account is given in Appendix H), batches of Tibetan traders have been pouring into India and from them four copies of, Bstan-hgyur have been obtained since 1911, of which one is with me, one in the Asiatic Society, Calcutta, one (a fragmentary copy) in the Sahitya-Parishad Library, and one in the Calcutta University Library.
In regard to the chapters on modern Logic I occasionally consulted some scholars among whom Mahamahopadhyaya Pramatha Nath Tarkabhusana, Mahamahopadhaya Gurucharan Tarka-darsana-tirtha, Mahamahopadhyaya Lakshman Sastri, Mahamahopadhyaya Vindhyeswari and Pandit Jamini Nath Tarka-vagisa may be gratefully mentioned.
My thanks are due to Hon’ble Mr. W. W. Hornell, Director of Public Instruction, Bengal, who very kindly looked through the first batch of manuscripts and made many suggestions which have stood me in great stead in preparing the volume. I am also grateful to Rev. A. Johnstone, M.A., Principal, C.M.S. College, for having revised manuscripts as well as the proofs of the portion dealing with ancient Logic. Mr. F. J. Monahan, I.C.S., Commissioner, Presidency Division, looked through a few galleys and when he left for England, the work of revision was very kindly undertaken by Dr. W. S. Urquhart, of the Scottish Churches College, to whom I offer my thinks. My special thanks are due to Dr. H Stephen of the Calcutta University for the interest and thoroughness with which he examined all the proofs of the present volume. The book however could not have seen the light nor assumed its present form were it not for help of various kinds received from that Macenas of letters- I mean the Hon’ble Justice Sir Asutosh Mukherji, Sarasvati, whose name is inseparably associated with every form of educational work in Bengali, who has spent the best years of his life in effecting various improvements in the status of the Calcutta University, and who above anything else is the typical man of action-a great Karmayogin-unswerving in his aim and fixity of purpose, selfless in his devotion to work, pursuing it through life regardless of malediction or benediction, praise or blame.
My object, in this volume is to write the history of what is called Nyaya, one of the six schools into which orthodox philosophy in India is divided. The word ‘logic,’ although it is in common parlance held synonymous with Indian Nyaya, is not exactly identical with it. Logic covers some of the subjects of Nyaya as well as Vaisesika and is not co-extensive with either.
Indian Logic has been differently defined in different ages but the definition generally accepted is the science which ascertains valid knowledge either by means of the six senses or by means of the five members of the syllogism; in other words, perception and inference are the subject-matter of Logic.
In my anxiety to assign a proper place to Jaina and Buddhistic Logic, which played no inconsiderable part in the development of the science of reasoning in India, I have made a departure from the time-honoured classification of Indian Logic into Ancient and Modern and have added an intermediate stage-thus dividing it into three periods. Ancient (650 B.C.- 100 A.D.), Mediaeval (up to 1200 A.D.) and Modern (from 900 A.D.). The standard texts for each of these periods were Nyaya-Sutra by Aksapada, Pramana-samuccaya by Dignaga and Tattva cintamani by Gangesa Upadhyaya respectively. The wide popularity of these works is evidenced by the large numbers of commentaries that have been written upon them, as mentioned below :-
l. Nyaya-sutra by Aksapada Gautama.
2. Nyaya-bhasya by Vatsyayana.
3. Nyaya-vartika by Udyotakara.
4. Nyaya-vartika-tatparya-tika by Vacaspati Misra.
5. Nyaya-vartika-tatparya-tika-parisuddhi by Udayanacarya.
6. Nyaya-nibandha-prakasa by Vardhamana.
7. Nyayalankara by Srikantha.
8. Nyaya-vrtti by Abhayatilaka Upadhyaya.
9. Nyaya-sutroddhara by Vacaspati Misra.
10. Nyaya-rahasya by Ramabhadra.
11. Nyaya-siddhanta-mala by Jayrama.
12. Nyaya-sutra-vrtti by Visvanatha Siddhantapancanana.
13. Nyaya-samksepa by Govinda Sanna.
1. Pramana-samuccaya by Dignaga.
2. Pramana-samuccaya-vrtti by Dignaga.
3. Pramana-vartika-karika by Dharmakirti.
4. Pramana-vartika-vrtti by Dharnakirti.
5. Pramana-vartika-panjika by Devendrabodhi.
6. Pramana-vartika-panjika-tika by Sakvabodhi.
7. Pramana-vartika-vrtti by Ravi Gupta.
8. Pramana-samuccaya-tika (Visalamalavati-nama) by Jinendra-bodhi.
> 9. Pramana-vartikalankara by Prajnakara Gupta.
10. Pramana-vartikalankara-tika by Jina
11. Pramana-vartikalankara by Yamari.
12. Pramana-vartika-tika by Sankarananda.
1. Tattva-cintamani by Gangesa.
2. Tattva-cintamani-prakasa by Vardhamana Upadhyaya.
3 Tattva-cintamani-aloka by Paksadhara Misra.
4 Tattva-cintamani-prakasa by Rucidatta.
5. Tattva-cintamani-mayukha by Sankara Misra.
6. Anumana-khanda-tika by Vacaspati Misra.
7. Tattva-cintamani-prakasa by Haridasa Nyayalankara.
8. Tattva-cintamani-didhiti by Raghunatha Siromani.
9. Mani-vyakhya by Kanada Tarkavagisa.
10. Tattva-cintamani-rahasya by Mathuranatha.
11. Tatva-cintamani-didhiti prasarini by Krsnadasa Sarvabhauma.
12. Tattva-cintamani-mayukha by Jagadisa Tarkalankara.
13. Tattva-cintamani-tika by Bhavananda Siddhantavagisa.
14. Tattva-cintamani-tika by Harirama Tarkavagisa.
15. Tattva-cintamani-gudhartha-dipika by Raghudeva Nyaya-lankara.
16. Tattva-cintamani - vyakhya by Gadadhara Bhattacarya.
17. Aloka-darpana by Mahesa Thakkura.
18. Tattva-cintamani-aloka-parisista by Devanatha Thakura.
19. Tattva-cintamani-aloka-kantakoddhara by Madhusudana Thakkura.
20. Tattva-cintamani-aloka-rahasya by Mathuranatha Tarka-vagisa.
21. Didhiti-rahasya by Mathuranatha Tarkavagisa.
22. Tattva-cintamani-didhiti-prasarini by Krsnadasa Sarvabhauma.
23. Anumanaloka-prasarini-on Paksadhara by krsnadasa.
24. Sabdaloka-viveka by Gunananda Vidyavagisa.
25. Didhiti-tika by Ramabhadra Sarvabhauma.
26. Tattva-cintamani-didhiti-prakasika by Jagadisa Tarkalankara.
27. Tattva-cintamani-didhiti-gudhartha-vidyotana by Jayarama Nyayapancanana.
28. Tattva-cintamani-didhiti-prakasika by Bhavananda Siddhantavagisa.
29. Tattva-cintamani-didhiti-pariksa by Rudra Nyayavacaspati.
30. Didhiti-tika by Raghudeva Nyayalankara.
31. Tattva-cintamani-didhiti-prakasika by Gadadhara.
32. Tattva-cintamani-didhiti-tika by Ramarudra Tarkavagisa.
33. Tattva kalisankari-patrika by Kalisankara.
34. Tattva candri-patrika by Candra Narayana.
35. Tattva-raudri-patrika by Rudra Narayana, etc.
Of all the nations of the world the Hindus and the Greeks appear to have developed systems of logic to a large extent in- dependently of each other. Hindu Logic in its rudimentary stage can be traced as early as the 6th century before Christ. Greek Logic assumed a definite form in the fourth century B.C. though its germs can be traced a little earlier in the controversies of the Sophists and Socrates. But so far as the five-limbed syllogism of Hindu Logic is concerned the Hindu logician may have been indebted some way or other to the Greeks. While the syllogism was definitely formulated as a logical doctrine by Aristotle in his Rhetoric, Prior Analytics and Posterior Analytics in the 4th century B.C., the Hindu logician shows but a vague conception of it as late as the 1st century B.C. It is not inconceivable that the knowledge of Aristotle’s logic found its way through Alexandria, Syria and other countries into Taxila (vide Appendix A). This is rightly corroborated by the Hindu tradition that Narada who visited Alexandria (Svetadvipa) and became an expert in the handling of the five limbed syllogism. So simple is syllogistic structure that it does not seem to require any theory of gradual development to explain its growth. And Aristotle might have conceived the idea of syllogistic form into which all reasoning could be put as a complete whole.
I am inclined, therefore, to think that the syllogism did not actually evolve in Indian Logic out of inference and that the Hindu logician owed the idea of syllogism to the influence of Aristotle (vide Appendix B). To me it is one of the most important enquiries in the history of Indian Logic to ascertain at what stage the doctrine of inference, which was an indigenous growth, was happily amalgamated with the borrowed art of syllogism into a common structure of logical thought. The Buddhist work Kathavatthu furnishes several logical terms, e.g. upanayana, nigamana, etc., of syllogistic reasoning. But we find not a single instance where these terms have been methodically combined so as to form a syllogism proper. An attempt has been made to discuss the point at issue in the Appendix B, and I leave it to the reader to take my views for what they are worth.
Ancient logic was called Anviksiki, or the science of debate, but with the introduction of syllogism or proper reasoning it came to be called Nyaya from the 1st century A.D. The Nyaya-Sasha in its earliest age flourished in Mithila with Gotama but it attained its high development in Prabhasa with Aksapada. The mediaeval logic from the 4th century A.D. was called Pramana Sastra, inasmuch as it dealt with pramana, the means of valid knowledge, i.e. perception and inference. Ujjaini in Malwa and Valabhi in Gujarat were the scenes of activity of the Jaina logicians of the Svetambara sect. The Digambaras flourished principally in Pataliputra and Dravida (including Karnata) about the 8th century A.D. Buddhist logicians flourished in universities such as Kancipura, Nalanda (vide Appendix C), Odantapuri, Sri-dhanya-kataka, Kasmira and Vikramasila (vide Appendix E). In Bengal Buddhist Logic attained its highest development during the reigns of the kings of the Pal dynasty (vide Appendix D). Modern Logic commenced from the 10th century A.D. and was, in its stage, called Prakarana or the Manual of Logic, but its real life began from the 13th century A.D., since when it has been called Tarka-Sastra or the science of Dialectics. It flourished in the University of Mithile (vide Appendix F) during 13th, 14th and 15th centuries, and afterwards that of Nadia (vide Appendix G) became its stronghold from the l6th century onwards.
Mahamahopadhyaya Dr. Satischandra Vidyabhushan came of a respectable Brahmana family of Faridpore. He was the third son of the well-known Pandit Pitambar Vidyavagisa and was born on the 30th July, 1870, in the village of Khalkula in Faridpore. Satischandra was an infant four years old when he lost his father. The family was large and yet had no earning member; and the eldest son Biswamber Jyotisarnava who was then only sixteen maintained the family under circumstances of great difficulty.
Satischandra first went to the village school at the early age of five and rapidly made his mark amongst his fellow students. He stood first in the Minor Vernacular Examination from his Division and secured a scholarship which enabled him to proceed to Navadvip and take admission into the Hindu School. He passed the Entrance Examination of the Calcutta University in 1888, and obtained a scholarship which helped him to come to Calcutta and take his admission into the City College. In due course he passed the F.A. Examination and then migrated to the Krishnagar College. He took his B.A. degree with Honours in Sanskrit in 1892, and in the following year passed the M.A. Examination in Sanskrit from the Calcutta Sanskrit College. Meanwhile he had distinguished himself at the Sanskrit Examination held by the Vidagdha Janani Sabha of Navadwip and had obtained the title of Vidyabhusana. It may be mentioned here that while still an undergraduate student in the City College he had married in 1889 the youngest daughter of Babu Gangadhar Acharyya, the first Principal of the Midnapore College.
In 1893, shortly after Satischandra had passed the M.A. Examination in Sanskrit he settled at Krishnagar as Professor of Sanskrit, in the local college. Here he had special opportunity to study Sanskrit Kavya from Mahamahopadhyaya Ajitnath Nyayaratna and Sanskrit Nyaya from Mahamahopadhyaya Jadunath Sarvabhauma, each the recognised authority on his special subject. Some years later his services were lent by the Government of Bengal to the Buddhist Text Society under whose auspices he edited a number of useful Pali Texts and published several original papers which attracted the attention of scholars in Europe and America. About this time he came into contact with Rai Saratchandra Das, Bahadur, C.I .E., the distinguished Tibetan Explorer at whose request his services were again lent by the Government for three years to assist in the preparation of a Tibetan-English Dictionary. He was in Darjeeling for this purpose from 1897-1900 and utilised the opportunity to acquire a thorough mastery over the Tibetan language with the help of the celebrated Lama Funchhog Wangdan of Lhasa, then resident at Darjeeling. In December, 1900, Satischandra came to Calcutta as a Professor in the Sanskrit College. At about this period he acquired a thorough knowledge of Pali from Sramanas of Ceylon and Burma. In November, 1901, he appeared a second time at the M.A. Examination of the Calcutta University and chose Pali as his special subject. The University authorities were placed in a difficulty to find a suitable examiner. Ultimately Mr. C. H. Tawney and Prof. E. B. Cowell who had for many years been connected with the University arranged with Professor T. W. Rhys Davids to conduct the examination. Satischandra achieved high distinction and his attainments were specially praised by the distinguished examiner. In March, 1902, he was transferred to the Presidency College as Professor of Sanskrit. In December, 1905, the Tashi Lama came to India in order to visit the places sacred to Buddhists. Satischandra was deputed by the Government to accompany him, to act as Interpreter and to explain to him the histories and customs at the old Buddhist holy places. The Tashi Lama was highly pleased and presented Satischandra with a Khatag (silken upper garment) in token of high regard. On the 1st January, 1906, the Governor-General bestowed upon him the coveted title of Mahamahopadhyeya. In 1907, on my nomination, Lord Minto, then Chancellor- of the Calcutta University appointed him an Ordinary Fellow. At the same time he became a Fellow of the Asiatic Society of Bengal and Joint, Philological Secretary. In 1908, the University conferred on him the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded him the Griffith Prize for original research. About this time the question of Principalship of the Sanskrit College had come under the consideration of the Government of Bengal and the suggestion had been put forward that a European scholar should be appointed. The Lieutenant-Governor felt doubtful as to the advisability of such a step and discussed the matter with me as Vice-Chancellor of the University. I expressed my emphatic disapproval of the course proposed and expressed the opinion that Dr. Satischandra Vidyabhushan world be found admirably qualified for the Principalship if he were offered facilities for -further training. This view prevailed and during 1909 and 1910 Satischandra was placed on deputation. In June 1909, he went to Ceylon and studied for six months with the venerable High Priest Sumangala, Principal of the Vidyodaya College at Colombo.
The first six months of the year 1910 he spent at Benares where, under the guidance of Dr. A. Venis, then Principal of the Queen’s College, he studied under Subrahmanya Sastri, Bhagavatacharyya, Sibakumar Sastri, Jibanath Jha and Bamachan Nyayacharyya. After his return to Calcutta from Benares he studied for six months under the guidance of Dr. George Thibaut and acquired a good working knowledge of French and German. On the 1st December, 1910, he assumed charge of the Principalship of the Sanskrit College. In 1912 and 1916, he passed with great distinction the Preliminary and Final Examinations in Tibetan held by the Government, and carried off the sanctioned prizes on both occasions. Ho also acted as Lecturer on Pali and Tibetan in the University. His fame as a profound scholar of versatile attainments had rapidly spread and he was eagerly sought after in literary conferences. In 1913, he was the first President of the All India Digambar Jain Conference held at Benares. In 1914, he was President of the All India Svetambar Jain Conference held at Jodhpur and of the All India Sanskrit Conference held at Hardwar. In 1916, he was President of the Bengal Literary Conference held at Jessore, and of the District, Literary Conference at Krishnagar. In 1919, he was a Vice-President of the First Oriental Conference held at Poona and President of the section on Pali and Buddhism. During all this period he worked strenuously as a scholar, and the value of his contributions to Sanskrit, Pali and Tibetan studies cannot be easily appraised by a single individual. In the University itself he was a leading figure, and from 1912, acted as a Member of the Syndicate. His services were invaluable in reorganising Sanskrit studies of the indigenous Type and his work as Secretary to the Sanskrit Board and the Sanskrit Association founded by the Government will be gratefully remembered by Pandits of the present generation all over this Presidency. There can be little doubt that he overworked himself, and in 1919 the first signs of failing health were indicated by mild stroke of paralysis. Friends and well-wishers implored him to spare himself, but he was deaf to their entreaties, for as he used to say, it is better to die than to remain invalid. Two other mild attacks followed and the recovery was slow and gradual. At last on the 25th April, 1920, he passed away as the result of a sudden attack of apoplexy.
The publication of the present volume has a melancholy interest for me. In 1901 I had come across a monograph on “Hindu Logic as preserved in China and Japan” by Sadajiro Sugiura who had offered it as a, dissertation for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the University of Pennsylvania. The work seemed to me of fascinating interest as opening up a new field of investigation full of untold possibilities. I suggested to Satischandra who at the time -was engaged in the study of Tibetan that he should undertake to explore the materials available from Tibetan sources. The substance of his first researches in this direction was embodied in his thesis on “Mediaeval School of Indian Logic” which brought him the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy and the Griffith Prize. He was however not content with this preliminary survey and continued steadily to collect, fresh materials. The present volume was the result. At his request I read through more than half of the work before it was finally printed off and this made me realise the true value of what he had accomplished. Professor Taraporewala has with loving care seen through the press all that had not been printed when Satischandra passed away.
A list of many and varied writings (complete as far as it has been possible to make it) has been compiled by several people and is herewith appended.
Portrait of the late MM. Dr. Satischandra Vidyabhusana
Foreword by Sir Asutosh Mukerjee
A List of the writings of the late Mahamahopadhyaya Dr. Satis Chandra Vidyabhushan.
THE ANCIENT SCHOOL OF INDIAN LOGIC
ANVIKSIKI - THE SCIENCE OF INQUIRY (650 B.C. - 100 A.D.).
The Growth of Anviksiki into an Art of Debate.
The Teachers of Anviksiki (Philosophy and Logic)
The Doctrines of Anviksiki
Reception accorded to Anviksiki
NYAYA-SASTRA - THE SCIENCE OF TRUE REASONING
The Growth of Nyayasastra
Contents of the Nyaya-sutra
Commentaries on the Nyaya-sutra
53a. Vacaspati's Theory of Condition (upadhi)
53b. The Theory of Cause and Effect (karya-karana)
53c. The Buddhist and Jaina Scriptures condemned
The Nyaya recognized as a Orthodox Learning.
THE MEDIAVEL SCHOOL OF INDIAN LOGIC
CALLED Pramanasastra, THE SCIENCE OF RIGHT KNOWLEDGE
Topics of Logic mentioned in the Jaina canons.
Jaina Writers on Systematic Logic
Continuity of Jaina Logic
THE BUDDHIST LOGIC
Topics of Logic mentioned in the old Buddhist Literature
Early Buddhist Writers on Logic
Systematic Buddhist Writers on Logic
THE MODERN SCHOOL OF INDIAN LOGIC
Prakarana - MANUAL OF LOGIC
The Nyaya-prakarana reduces its categories to one
The Vaisesika Prakarana embodying the Nyaya category of Pramana
Tarka-Sastra - THE SCIENCE OF DIALECTICS
Formation of the Tarka-sastra
Appendix A: The University of Taxila
Appendix B: Influence of Aristotle on the Development of the Syllogism in Indian Logic.
Appendix C: The University of Nalanda
Appendix D: A List of Kings of the Pala Dynasty of Bengal and Behar
Appendix E: The Royal University of Vikramasila
Appendix F: University of Mithila
Appendix G: The University of Nadia
Appendix H: The Tashi Lama's Visit to India
Appendix I: Reminiscences of a Visit to Labrang, Pamiyangchi and Padangi
Appendix J: Reminiscences of a Visit to Pamiyangchi
Appendix K: Journey to Ceylon
Index of Subjects
Index of Books
Index of Authors
Index of Quotations
Index of Sanskrit Terms
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