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Books > Language and Literature > History > A History of Rupaka In the Alankara-Sastra
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A History of Rupaka In the Alankara-Sastra
A History of Rupaka In the Alankara-Sastra
Description
About the Book

The present treatise is a thoroughly re-written and enlarged, revised and up-to-date redaction of the renowned author's original Ph. D. dissertation (FIRST CLASS) written by him as a DAAD. ["deutscher Akademischer Austausch-dienst" (German Academic Exchange Service), Bonn] scholar under the expert direction of his late lamented "Doktor-vater", Prof. Dr. Johannes Nobel, Direktor, Indisch. Ostasiatisches Seminar, Philipps-Universitat Marburg/Lahn, West Germany.

This succinct account of metaphor in Sanskrit Poetics consists of the following chapters:-

Chapter I : Introduction
Chapter II: The Term Rupaka and its Significance
Chapter III: Definition of Rupaka and its Analysis
Chapter IV: Divisions of Rupaka
Chapter V: Rupaka in relation to Grammar
Chapter VI: Rupaka in relation to Other Alankaras
Chapter VII: Defects in Rupaka
Chapter VIII: Conclusion
Chapter wise References & Notes
Appendix : Excerpt from Bhanudatta's est Known manuscript of the text in the Richard Schmidt collection of the west-deutsche Bibliothek, Marburg/Lahn, West Germany.

This valuable book embodies the results of methodical and patient researches stretched over a prolonged period of time. The thorough and scientific treatment of the subject breaks fresh ground and introduces a learned reader to newer avenues of thought. The whole work is based on the first-hand data culled from a wide range of texts in Sanskrit, Pali, Prakrit, Tibetan, Bengali, Hindi, English, German and Grench. Even the Xerox copies of extremely rare books and the microfilms and Photostat copies of very valuable manuscripts have been consulted. The rich Bibliography will command the admiration of a discerning reader.

A perusal of this thought-provoking book will certainly be rewarding.

Excerpts from some Select Opinions:
How an insightful and intensive survey of even a single Alankara like rupaka can become a substantial contribution to the study of an aesthetic concept is well evidenced in this work.

Dr. K. Krishnamoorthy
Dharwad, Karnatak

I am sure that the work will be a landmark in the researches in the concept and application of the Alankaras devised by Sanskrit rhetoricians and that it will pave the way for similar studies regarding other Alankaras.

Dr. S. Venkatasubramonia lyer
Cochin, Kerala

May this publication, written in the erudite tradition of India and Germany and dedicated to a great Sanskrit Scholar, be serving as an Important source of information and inspiration to all those interested in Indian poetry.

Dr. Magdalene Duckwitz
Embassy of the
Federal Republic of Germany
New Delhi
About the Author

Born in Calcutta on the 1-5-1924 in Bhattapalli (24 Parganas, West Bengal), Dr. Biswanatha Bhattacharya, B.A. (Hons. In Sanskrit; Calcutta University medallist), M.A [first in first Class in Sanskrit (Kavya Group); Visva-Bharati University], Ph.C. (First Class I Indo-philology; Philipps- Universitat Marburg/ Lahn, West Germany), D. Litt. (in Sanskrit; Calcutta University), has been teaching Sanskrit grammar, poetics, dramaturgy, Classical Sanskrit Literature, Sanskrit inscriptions and Prakrit texts in the M.A classes and guiding research for Ph. D. at Santiniketan as Adhyapaka in Sanskrit, Vidya-Bhavana, Visva-Bharati University, for more than twenty years. Dr. Bhattacharya has specialized in Sanskrit grammar, poetics and literature.

Dr. Bhattacharya has already been a Life Member of the Kuppuswami Sastri Research Institute, Mylapore, Madras-4, and the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona-4.

Uptil now he has contributed 109 original research papers in Sanskrit, English and Hindi on different domains of Indophilology to various Festschrifts, Commemoration Volumes, Encyclopaedias, Conference Proceedings and reputed research journals of international standard of India and abroad. Of these 73 have already been puplished and the rest is awaiting early publication.

Work published and under print:

1. ASVAGHOSA : A Critical study of his Authentic Kavyas, and the Apocryphal works, with special reference to his Contributions to the Classical Sanskrit Literature, and his Doctrinal Standpoint as a Buddhist.

2. Contributions to Indo-philology, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi

CONTENTS
Page
Dedicationv
Blessingsvii-viii
Forewordix-xvi
Prefacexvii-xxiv
Detailed Contentsxxv-xxxii
An Alphabetical List of the Abbreviations
used in the Present Treatise
xxxiii-xxxvii
TEXT-
CHATPER I: INTRODUCTION-3-14
1. The Alankara-sastra is collateral with the Classical Sanskrit Literature3
2. Beginning of the Ornate Sanskrit Literature3-7
a) Vedic Period3
b) Epic Period3
c) Formative Period4-7
3. Beginning of the Alankara-sastra-7-10
a) Vedic Period7
b) Epic Period7
c) Formative Period8-10
4. History of the Alankaras10-13
5. Origin of Rupaka131-14
CHAPTER II: THE TERM RUPAKA AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE15-21
1. Rupaka - a Connotative Name15
2. Derivations of the Term 15-17
3. Significance of the Term Rupaka17
4. Two Main Schools of Interpreters17
5. Derivation of the Term 'Metaphor' and its Correspondence to Sanskrit 'Tadrupya'18
6. Difference between Tadrupya and Tadatmya18
7. Rupaka - a Sadrsya-mula Alankara18-19
8. Rupaka - an Abheda-pradhana Alankara of the Aropa-garbha Group19
9. Abheda-pradhanya and its Meaning in Rupaka19-20
10. Upamana and Upameya and their Various Synonyms examined20-21
CHAPTER III: DEFINITION OF RUPAKA AND ITS ANALYSIS-
RUPAKA-LAKSANA-SAMGRAHA
A. DEFINITION OF RUPAKA-
22-44
22-33
33-44
1. Definition of Rupaka and its Analysis33
2. Mention of Upamana and Upameya in Words33
3. Beauty of Upamana and Upameya33
4. Basic Difference between Upamana and Upameya33-44
5. Mention of this Difference34
6. Similarity binds Upamana and Upameya.34
7. Similarity and its Implication34-35
8. Collocation through Secondary Meaning35-36
9. Secondary Meaning and its Application to Rupaka36
10. Type of the Secondary Function of a Word applicable to Rupaka36-37
11. Secondary Meaning and Emotive significance37
12. Similarity to Identity37
13. Two Types of Identity - Tadrupya and Tadatmya - distinguished by Appayya37-38
14. Concepts of Tadrupya and Tadatmya in the pre-Appayya Texts on Poetics38-39
15. Rupaka usually stands for Tadatmya or Abheda39
16. Rupana is Abarya39
17. Concepts of Identity, Superimposition and Similarity are correlated.39-40
18. Three Classes of the Definitions of Rupaka -40-42
i) Abheda School40
ii) Aropa School40-41
iii) Sadrsya School41-42
19. Nature of Cognition in Identity -42-44
I) Sabda-jnana -42-43
a ) Vyanjana42
b ) Tatpaya42-43
c ) Udicya-manasa-vyapara43
d ) Abhidha43
e ) Laksana43
f ) Abhidha-cum-Laksana43
ii) Manasa-pratyaksa43-44
B. PHILOSOPHY OF RUPAKA -44
1. Tadatmya and Tadrupya 44
CHAPTER IV: DIVISIONS OF RUPAKA -45-57
A. DIVISIONS OF RUPAKA IN THE ALANKARA-SASTRA TEXTS-45-55
1.Divisions of Rupaka in Historical Development45
2.Samasta-vastu-visaya foreshadowed in Bharata45-46
3.Rupakabhyadhika in the Visnu-dharmottara-Purana46
4.Samasta-vastu-visaya in Bhatti46
5.Bhamaha - Samasta-vastu-visaya and Eka-desa-vivartin (= Savayava Group)46
6.Dandin and a Long List46-47
7.Udbhata - I) Samasta-vastu-visaya
( = Mala-rupaka) and ii) Ekadesa-vivartin
( = Slista-paramparita)
47
8.Vamana - Vyasta-rupaka and Upama-rupaka (= Paramparita)47-48
9.Rudrata - Savayava, Niravayava
(Including Paramparita)and Sankirna, etc.
48
10.Bhoja -24 Varieties49
11.Agni-Purana - No Division at all49
12.Mammata - 8 Varieties only49-50
13.Hemacandra - 2 Varieties, viz.,
i> Eka-visaya and ii) Aneka-visaya
50
14.Vagbhata, Son of Soma, and 4 Varieties50
15. Ruyyaka and the New Standardized Classification50
16.Sangharakkhita and his Indebtedness to Bhamaha and Dandin50
17.Sobhakaramitra and his Originality50
18.Jayaratha's fresh twofold Sub-division of
Mala-rupaka and other Contributions
51
19.Jayadeva's Innovations51
20.Narendraprabha and his Compilation51
21.Amaracandra and the Minor Variations51
22.Vidyadhara follows Ruyyaka.51
23.Vagbhata, Son of Nemikumara, follows Dandin, etc.51
24.Vidyanatha follows Ruyyaka52
25.Visvanatha and his Slista-Savayava and
Adhikarudha-vaisistya Rupaka
52
26.Bhavadeva's Rupita-rupaka52
27.Bhanudatta's New and Unexplained Nomenclatures 52
28.Kavi-Karnapura's Contribution52
29.Kesava's Rupaka includes Laksana
[=Atisayokti]
52-53
30.Arunagiri follows the Mammata-Ruyyaka
Standard Classification of Rupaka
53
31.Appayya's Fresh Classification of Rupaka into 12 Varieties53-54
32.Srikrsna-Sarman (and Candradeva-Sarman)
and the Synthesis of the Standpoints of
Mammata and Appayya
54
33.Jagannatha's Innovations54
34.Nrsimha and Baladeva54
35.Visvesvara-the Last Best Alankarika54-55
36.Devasankara follows Appayya55
37.Acyuta's Summary and Philosophy55
B. DIVISIONS OF RUPAKA AND LITERARY USAGE-55-57
1.Divisions are not exhaustive55
2.Some peculiarities in the Use of Rupaka in some Early Kunst-Kavyas55-56
3.Further Possibilities of Rupaka57
CHAPTER V:RUPAKA IN RELATION TO GRAMMAR-58-61
1.poetics and Grammar58
2.Samanadhikarana and Vyakhikarana Rupakas58
3.Rupaka and Gender58
4.Rupaka and Number58-59
5.Upama-Rupaka-Sandeha-Sankara and Sadhaka-Badhaka-Pramana-Sad-Bhava59
6.Relative Importance of the Upamana and the Upameya59
7.Name of the Compound in Samasagata Rupaka60-61
CHAPTER VI:RUPAKA IN RELATION TO OTHER ALANKARAS-62-78
Chart Showing The Mutual Relation of Rupaka and Other Alankaras62-63
1.Respective Position of Rupaka and Other Allied Alankaras63-64
2.Rupaka and the Other Aropa-mula Alankaras-64-68
i) Rupaka and Parinama64-65
ii) Rupaka and Ullekha65-66
iii) Rupaka and Bhrantimat66
iv) Rupaka and Sandeha66-67
v) Rupaka and Apahnuti67-68
vi) Rupaka and Niscaya68
3.Rupaka and the Adhyavasaya-mula Alankaras -68-70
i) Rupaka and Utpreksa68-69
ii) Rupaka and Atisayokti70
4.Rupaka and the Bheda-pradhana Alankaras-70-72
i) Rupaka and Pratipa-70-71
ii) Rupaka and Vyatireka71-72
5.Rupaka and the Bhedabhedobhaya-pradhana Alankaras -72-75
i) Mutual Relation of Upama, Rupaka and Ananvaya72-73
ii) Rupaka and Upama73
iii) Rupaka and Kincit-sadrsi Upama74
iv) Eka-desavivartin Rupaka and Eka-desa-vivartini Upama74
v) Mala-rupaka and Malopama74
vi) Rasana-rupaka and Rasanopama74-75
vii) Upama-rupaka-sandeha-sankara75
viii) Rupaka and Ananvaya75
6.Rupaka and the Gamyaupamyasraya Alankaras75-78
i) Rupaka and Nidarsana75-76
ii) Rupaka and Samasokti76
7.Rupaka and Sabda-slesa77-78
CHAPTER VII:DEFECTS IN RUPAKA-79-81
1.Defects in Rupaka noted by some Alankarikas79-80
i) Mahima-Bhatta, Hemacandra, Somesvara and Manikyacandra79
ii) Vagbhata, Son of Soma79
iii) Sangharakkhita79
iv) Vidyadhara79-80
2.Other Shortcomings80-81
i) Question of Beauty80
ii) Poetic Conventions80
iii) Critic-cum-Poet- not a happy combination always80
iv) Excess and Artificiality80-81
v) Use of Words like Abheda,Tadatmya, etc.81
CHAPTER VIII:CONCLUSION82-84
1.a maiden Approach to a Neglected
Domain of the History of Sanskrit Poetics
82
2.History of Rupaka and the different
Data it supplies
82-84
REFERENCES AND NOTES85-436
CHAPTER I95-92
CHAPTER II93-139
CHAPTER III140-237
CHAPTER IV238-338
CHAPTER V339-366
CHAPTER VI367-421
CHAPTER VII422-436
APPENDIX:Excerpt from Bhanudatta's Alamkara-Tilaka437-439
INDEX440-444
SOME SELECT OPINIONS445-446

A History of Rupaka In the Alankara-Sastra

Item Code:
IDH129
Cover:
Hardcover
Edition:
1996
ISBN:
8170173159
Size:
8.6" X 5.7"
Pages:
446
Price:
$40.00   Shipping Free
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About the Book

The present treatise is a thoroughly re-written and enlarged, revised and up-to-date redaction of the renowned author's original Ph. D. dissertation (FIRST CLASS) written by him as a DAAD. ["deutscher Akademischer Austausch-dienst" (German Academic Exchange Service), Bonn] scholar under the expert direction of his late lamented "Doktor-vater", Prof. Dr. Johannes Nobel, Direktor, Indisch. Ostasiatisches Seminar, Philipps-Universitat Marburg/Lahn, West Germany.

This succinct account of metaphor in Sanskrit Poetics consists of the following chapters:-

Chapter I : Introduction
Chapter II: The Term Rupaka and its Significance
Chapter III: Definition of Rupaka and its Analysis
Chapter IV: Divisions of Rupaka
Chapter V: Rupaka in relation to Grammar
Chapter VI: Rupaka in relation to Other Alankaras
Chapter VII: Defects in Rupaka
Chapter VIII: Conclusion
Chapter wise References & Notes
Appendix : Excerpt from Bhanudatta's est Known manuscript of the text in the Richard Schmidt collection of the west-deutsche Bibliothek, Marburg/Lahn, West Germany.

This valuable book embodies the results of methodical and patient researches stretched over a prolonged period of time. The thorough and scientific treatment of the subject breaks fresh ground and introduces a learned reader to newer avenues of thought. The whole work is based on the first-hand data culled from a wide range of texts in Sanskrit, Pali, Prakrit, Tibetan, Bengali, Hindi, English, German and Grench. Even the Xerox copies of extremely rare books and the microfilms and Photostat copies of very valuable manuscripts have been consulted. The rich Bibliography will command the admiration of a discerning reader.

A perusal of this thought-provoking book will certainly be rewarding.

Excerpts from some Select Opinions:
How an insightful and intensive survey of even a single Alankara like rupaka can become a substantial contribution to the study of an aesthetic concept is well evidenced in this work.

Dr. K. Krishnamoorthy
Dharwad, Karnatak

I am sure that the work will be a landmark in the researches in the concept and application of the Alankaras devised by Sanskrit rhetoricians and that it will pave the way for similar studies regarding other Alankaras.

Dr. S. Venkatasubramonia lyer
Cochin, Kerala

May this publication, written in the erudite tradition of India and Germany and dedicated to a great Sanskrit Scholar, be serving as an Important source of information and inspiration to all those interested in Indian poetry.

Dr. Magdalene Duckwitz
Embassy of the
Federal Republic of Germany
New Delhi
About the Author

Born in Calcutta on the 1-5-1924 in Bhattapalli (24 Parganas, West Bengal), Dr. Biswanatha Bhattacharya, B.A. (Hons. In Sanskrit; Calcutta University medallist), M.A [first in first Class in Sanskrit (Kavya Group); Visva-Bharati University], Ph.C. (First Class I Indo-philology; Philipps- Universitat Marburg/ Lahn, West Germany), D. Litt. (in Sanskrit; Calcutta University), has been teaching Sanskrit grammar, poetics, dramaturgy, Classical Sanskrit Literature, Sanskrit inscriptions and Prakrit texts in the M.A classes and guiding research for Ph. D. at Santiniketan as Adhyapaka in Sanskrit, Vidya-Bhavana, Visva-Bharati University, for more than twenty years. Dr. Bhattacharya has specialized in Sanskrit grammar, poetics and literature.

Dr. Bhattacharya has already been a Life Member of the Kuppuswami Sastri Research Institute, Mylapore, Madras-4, and the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona-4.

Uptil now he has contributed 109 original research papers in Sanskrit, English and Hindi on different domains of Indophilology to various Festschrifts, Commemoration Volumes, Encyclopaedias, Conference Proceedings and reputed research journals of international standard of India and abroad. Of these 73 have already been puplished and the rest is awaiting early publication.

Work published and under print:

1. ASVAGHOSA : A Critical study of his Authentic Kavyas, and the Apocryphal works, with special reference to his Contributions to the Classical Sanskrit Literature, and his Doctrinal Standpoint as a Buddhist.

2. Contributions to Indo-philology, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi

CONTENTS
Page
Dedicationv
Blessingsvii-viii
Forewordix-xvi
Prefacexvii-xxiv
Detailed Contentsxxv-xxxii
An Alphabetical List of the Abbreviations
used in the Present Treatise
xxxiii-xxxvii
TEXT-
CHATPER I: INTRODUCTION-3-14
1. The Alankara-sastra is collateral with the Classical Sanskrit Literature3
2. Beginning of the Ornate Sanskrit Literature3-7
a) Vedic Period3
b) Epic Period3
c) Formative Period4-7
3. Beginning of the Alankara-sastra-7-10
a) Vedic Period7
b) Epic Period7
c) Formative Period8-10
4. History of the Alankaras10-13
5. Origin of Rupaka131-14
CHAPTER II: THE TERM RUPAKA AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE15-21
1. Rupaka - a Connotative Name15
2. Derivations of the Term 15-17
3. Significance of the Term Rupaka17
4. Two Main Schools of Interpreters17
5. Derivation of the Term 'Metaphor' and its Correspondence to Sanskrit 'Tadrupya'18
6. Difference between Tadrupya and Tadatmya18
7. Rupaka - a Sadrsya-mula Alankara18-19
8. Rupaka - an Abheda-pradhana Alankara of the Aropa-garbha Group19
9. Abheda-pradhanya and its Meaning in Rupaka19-20
10. Upamana and Upameya and their Various Synonyms examined20-21
CHAPTER III: DEFINITION OF RUPAKA AND ITS ANALYSIS-
RUPAKA-LAKSANA-SAMGRAHA
A. DEFINITION OF RUPAKA-
22-44
22-33
33-44
1. Definition of Rupaka and its Analysis33
2. Mention of Upamana and Upameya in Words33
3. Beauty of Upamana and Upameya33
4. Basic Difference between Upamana and Upameya33-44
5. Mention of this Difference34
6. Similarity binds Upamana and Upameya.34
7. Similarity and its Implication34-35
8. Collocation through Secondary Meaning35-36
9. Secondary Meaning and its Application to Rupaka36
10. Type of the Secondary Function of a Word applicable to Rupaka36-37
11. Secondary Meaning and Emotive significance37
12. Similarity to Identity37
13. Two Types of Identity - Tadrupya and Tadatmya - distinguished by Appayya37-38
14. Concepts of Tadrupya and Tadatmya in the pre-Appayya Texts on Poetics38-39
15. Rupaka usually stands for Tadatmya or Abheda39
16. Rupana is Abarya39
17. Concepts of Identity, Superimposition and Similarity are correlated.39-40
18. Three Classes of the Definitions of Rupaka -40-42
i) Abheda School40
ii) Aropa School40-41
iii) Sadrsya School41-42
19. Nature of Cognition in Identity -42-44
I) Sabda-jnana -42-43
a ) Vyanjana42
b ) Tatpaya42-43
c ) Udicya-manasa-vyapara43
d ) Abhidha43
e ) Laksana43
f ) Abhidha-cum-Laksana43
ii) Manasa-pratyaksa43-44
B. PHILOSOPHY OF RUPAKA -44
1. Tadatmya and Tadrupya 44
CHAPTER IV: DIVISIONS OF RUPAKA -45-57
A. DIVISIONS OF RUPAKA IN THE ALANKARA-SASTRA TEXTS-45-55
1.Divisions of Rupaka in Historical Development45
2.Samasta-vastu-visaya foreshadowed in Bharata45-46
3.Rupakabhyadhika in the Visnu-dharmottara-Purana46
4.Samasta-vastu-visaya in Bhatti46
5.Bhamaha - Samasta-vastu-visaya and Eka-desa-vivartin (= Savayava Group)46
6.Dandin and a Long List46-47
7.Udbhata - I) Samasta-vastu-visaya
( = Mala-rupaka) and ii) Ekadesa-vivartin
( = Slista-paramparita)
47
8.Vamana - Vyasta-rupaka and Upama-rupaka (= Paramparita)47-48
9.Rudrata - Savayava, Niravayava
(Including Paramparita)and Sankirna, etc.
48
10.Bhoja -24 Varieties49
11.Agni-Purana - No Division at all49
12.Mammata - 8 Varieties only49-50
13.Hemacandra - 2 Varieties, viz.,
i> Eka-visaya and ii) Aneka-visaya
50
14.Vagbhata, Son of Soma, and 4 Varieties50
15. Ruyyaka and the New Standardized Classification50
16.Sangharakkhita and his Indebtedness to Bhamaha and Dandin50
17.Sobhakaramitra and his Originality50
18.Jayaratha's fresh twofold Sub-division of
Mala-rupaka and other Contributions
51
19.Jayadeva's Innovations51
20.Narendraprabha and his Compilation51
21.Amaracandra and the Minor Variations51
22.Vidyadhara follows Ruyyaka.51
23.Vagbhata, Son of Nemikumara, follows Dandin, etc.51
24.Vidyanatha follows Ruyyaka52
25.Visvanatha and his Slista-Savayava and
Adhikarudha-vaisistya Rupaka
52
26.Bhavadeva's Rupita-rupaka52
27.Bhanudatta's New and Unexplained Nomenclatures 52
28.Kavi-Karnapura's Contribution52
29.Kesava's Rupaka includes Laksana
[=Atisayokti]
52-53
30.Arunagiri follows the Mammata-Ruyyaka
Standard Classification of Rupaka
53
31.Appayya's Fresh Classification of Rupaka into 12 Varieties53-54
32.Srikrsna-Sarman (and Candradeva-Sarman)
and the Synthesis of the Standpoints of
Mammata and Appayya
54
33.Jagannatha's Innovations54
34.Nrsimha and Baladeva54
35.Visvesvara-the Last Best Alankarika54-55
36.Devasankara follows Appayya55
37.Acyuta's Summary and Philosophy55
B. DIVISIONS OF RUPAKA AND LITERARY USAGE-55-57
1.Divisions are not exhaustive55
2.Some peculiarities in the Use of Rupaka in some Early Kunst-Kavyas55-56
3.Further Possibilities of Rupaka57
CHAPTER V:RUPAKA IN RELATION TO GRAMMAR-58-61
1.poetics and Grammar58
2.Samanadhikarana and Vyakhikarana Rupakas58
3.Rupaka and Gender58
4.Rupaka and Number58-59
5.Upama-Rupaka-Sandeha-Sankara and Sadhaka-Badhaka-Pramana-Sad-Bhava59
6.Relative Importance of the Upamana and the Upameya59
7.Name of the Compound in Samasagata Rupaka60-61
CHAPTER VI:RUPAKA IN RELATION TO OTHER ALANKARAS-62-78
Chart Showing The Mutual Relation of Rupaka and Other Alankaras62-63
1.Respective Position of Rupaka and Other Allied Alankaras63-64
2.Rupaka and the Other Aropa-mula Alankaras-64-68
i) Rupaka and Parinama64-65
ii) Rupaka and Ullekha65-66
iii) Rupaka and Bhrantimat66
iv) Rupaka and Sandeha66-67
v) Rupaka and Apahnuti67-68
vi) Rupaka and Niscaya68
3.Rupaka and the Adhyavasaya-mula Alankaras -68-70
i) Rupaka and Utpreksa68-69
ii) Rupaka and Atisayokti70
4.Rupaka and the Bheda-pradhana Alankaras-70-72
i) Rupaka and Pratipa-70-71
ii) Rupaka and Vyatireka71-72
5.Rupaka and the Bhedabhedobhaya-pradhana Alankaras -72-75
i) Mutual Relation of Upama, Rupaka and Ananvaya72-73
ii) Rupaka and Upama73
iii) Rupaka and Kincit-sadrsi Upama74
iv) Eka-desavivartin Rupaka and Eka-desa-vivartini Upama74
v) Mala-rupaka and Malopama74
vi) Rasana-rupaka and Rasanopama74-75
vii) Upama-rupaka-sandeha-sankara75
viii) Rupaka and Ananvaya75
6.Rupaka and the Gamyaupamyasraya Alankaras75-78
i) Rupaka and Nidarsana75-76
ii) Rupaka and Samasokti76
7.Rupaka and Sabda-slesa77-78
CHAPTER VII:DEFECTS IN RUPAKA-79-81
1.Defects in Rupaka noted by some Alankarikas79-80
i) Mahima-Bhatta, Hemacandra, Somesvara and Manikyacandra79
ii) Vagbhata, Son of Soma79
iii) Sangharakkhita79
iv) Vidyadhara79-80
2.Other Shortcomings80-81
i) Question of Beauty80
ii) Poetic Conventions80
iii) Critic-cum-Poet- not a happy combination always80
iv) Excess and Artificiality80-81
v) Use of Words like Abheda,Tadatmya, etc.81
CHAPTER VIII:CONCLUSION82-84
1.a maiden Approach to a Neglected
Domain of the History of Sanskrit Poetics
82
2.History of Rupaka and the different
Data it supplies
82-84
REFERENCES AND NOTES85-436
CHAPTER I95-92
CHAPTER II93-139
CHAPTER III140-237
CHAPTER IV238-338
CHAPTER V339-366
CHAPTER VI367-421
CHAPTER VII422-436
APPENDIX:Excerpt from Bhanudatta's Alamkara-Tilaka437-439
INDEX440-444
SOME SELECT OPINIONS445-446
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