Quite some time back IIAS decided to take up a number of projects of which publishing the translation of the text of Bhasapariccheda (BP) and Nyayasiddhatamuktavali(SM) on it- both by Visvanatha Nyayapancanana- along with Prakasa (PrK) on it was one. This Prakasa is more commonly known as Dinakri (DnK) derived from the name of the author Dinakara Bhatta who complete the work Prakasa left incomplete by its author Mahadeva Bhatta. Dr. Rajaram was chosen for the task of translating the text DnK along with BP and SM. The choice was justified as there were not many scholars who could be entrusted with the job; and Professor G. C. Pandle would not accept any one less competent than the present translator. By that time Dr. Rajaram was an established young Naiyayika and was widely acclaimed for his scholarship in this field. Besides he was already teaching the particular text in question for many years. Among the texts he was teaching to advanced students and researchers of Nyaya there were many that were far more difficult and advanced texts. But no book can match Dinakari as a text suitable for a sound foundation course in Navyanyaya. Nobody who has not mastered this text is entrusted with the job of teaching the subject of Navyanyaya. Though it is considered as an indispensible primer of Navyanyaya yet it cannot be read and understood by students without regular help from some competent teacher. Apart from the difficulty of the subject the DnK deals with, the language of the book is technical Sanskrit. On the other hand these days there are not many students who have the knowledge of even literary Sanskrit. Many great minds in modern India besides Institutions like IIAS thought that such good texts and the valuable knowledge they contain should be made widely available through translation of the texts in question in some regional language of India. Many good translations in the regional languages like Hindi and Bengali of the texts Bhasaparicchedaha and Siddhantamuktavali are easily available. Unfortunately the same is not true about the text Dinakari. Dr. Rajaram himself must have felt this want so he kindly agreed to translate this work. Academic community should feel grateful to him for the scholarly service he has rendered by translating this work in Hindi.
Both (BP) and (SM) on it are comprehensive in the sense they cover the entire field of Navyanyaya philosophy, they discuss almost all tenses and views that constitute the philosophy of Nyaya or, more accurately, Nyaya- Vaisesika. Among the elucidations and commentaries of (SM), DnK is comprehensive in another sense also. While elucidating any single passage of (SM), DnK never fails to raise critical questions that a serious and competent reader is sure to ask. DnK goes further; it thoroughly discusses the criticisms and solves them masterly. These critical points, their discussion and solution are as difficult as they are useful in bringing out the deeper significance of (SM) passages and mark an advance of Nyaya. This is the reason why scholars like Ramabhadra Bhattacarya felt it necessary to write a similar advanced and critical commentary on it known as Ramarudri.
Both the works BP and SM are complete. BP is in the form of verse or couplet; and it contains about 168 verses of which the first part, Pratyaksakhanda, contains verses 1-65. Dr. Rajaram in this volume has translated verses 1-65. Even literal translation of philosophical Sanskrit in any Indian regional language is bound to be longer; still if one attempts a translator to keep the length of the translation within a reasonable limit and make it at the same time both readable and intelligible. A scholar of Dr.Rajaram’s experience and competence could hardly miss this truth. So he felt compelled to insert in the body of the running text of more or less literal translation many elucidatory passages (visesartaha). Even then nobody should think that anyone save some advanced students of Navyanyaya can understand the translation or through it the texts of BP and SM and DnK in the original without the help and guidance of some competent teacher or advanced student of Nyaya. Even so we cannot expect Dr. Rajaram, a Naiyayika who not only knows the subject but has love for it and commitment to it, to sacrifice accuracy for easy intelligibility. Accuracy of this translation is beyond any doubt. Rajaram’s Hindi is also quite readable. If one still finds the translation difficult then it is due to the inherent difficulty of the subject of Nyaya.
I have gone through some portions of this translation and felt happy. I feel Dr. Rajaram has left two things to hope for. First, it is hoped that before long he will complete the translation of the remaining portion of Dinakari and that in a second edition he will further improve the translation on the basis of the expected feedback from the readers. I wish Dr. Rajaram the best.
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