About the Author:
Annie Besant (1847-1933), second President of the Theosophical Society (1907-1933) was described as a 'Diamond Soul', for she had many brilliant facts to her character. She was an outstanding orator of her time, a champion of human freedom, educationist, philanthropist and author with more than three hundred books and pamphlets to her credit. She also guided thousands of men and women all over the world in their spiritual quest.
In her earlier days in England, she did remarkable work as a Freethinker and Fabian socialist, and supported many noble causes including women's suffrage. From 1893, she lived in India and worked indefatigably for the cultural and spiritual renaissance of the country. She organized the Home Rule movement and inspired Indians with a dynamic vision of India's future.
G. W. Leadbeater (1847-1934) was a highly developed clairvoyant and the author of over thirty books on the spiritual life and on the psychic nature of man.
He unfolded and perfected his psychic faculties under the guidance of his adept teacher and in 1893 commenced his clairvoyant investigations, on occasions collaborating with Annie Besant, the Second President of the Society.
His lectures world-wide presented a new viewpoint to thousands of people. It was he who discovered the great potential of J. Krishnamurti.
THIS work contains a record of clairvoyant investigations into the structure of matter.
The observations were carried out at intervals over a period of nearly forty years, the
first in August 1895 and the last in October 1933. The two investigators, Annie Besant
(1847-1933) and C. W: Leadbeater (1847-1934) were trained clairvoyants and well equipped
to check and supplement each other's work.
Method of. Investigation: The method is unique and difficult to explain. Many
have heard of the word" Clairvoyance" (clear-seeing), connoting the cognition of sights
and sounds not perceived by ordinary people. In India the term Yoga is sometimes
related to faculties that are beyond ordinary cognition. It is stated in Indian Yoga
that one who has trained himself" can make himself infinitesimally small at will". This
does not mean that he, undergoes a diminution in bodily size, but only that, relatively,
his conception of himself can be so minimized that objects which normally are small
appear to him as large. The two investigators had been trained by their Eastern Gurus
or Teachers to exercise this unique faculty of Yoga, so that when they observed a
chemical atom it appeared to their vision as highly magnified.
When using this method the investigator is awake and not in any form of
trance. He employs his usual faculties for recording what he observes; he maps out
on a piece of paper a sketch of what he sees and may describe his impressions so that
a stenographer can take down his remarks. Just as a microscopist, looking into the
microscope and without removing his eyes from the slide, can describe what he
observes so that it can be recorded, so the clairvoyant investigator watching an atom
or molecule can describe what he sees in front of him. What he sees is not subjective,
in the sense that it is a creation of the imagination; it is as objective as is the paper
on which I am writing this and the pen which I use.
The object examined. whether an atom or a compound, is seen exactly as it exists
normally, that is to say, it is not under any stress caused by an electric or magnetic
field. As each object is in rapid motion, the only force brought to beat on it is a
special form of will-power, so as to make its movement slow enough to observe the details.
The earliest investigations were made in England in 1895. The first atoms
observed were four gases in the air, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and a fourth
gas (atomic weight = 3) so far not discovered by chemists. The atoms do not carry
their own labels and the first problem was that of identification. Most active of
the four gases was one which the investigators considered was probably Oxygen.
A somewhat lethargic gas was thought to be Nitrogen. The lightest of all four was
taken to be Hydrogen. But it was only after the fullest examination of the constituent
parts of each gas (for each so-called “atom,” the .. un-cut-able," was found to be
composed of smaller units) that finality was achieved regarding the identity of the gases.
Hydrogen was found to be composed of 18 units; Nitrogen of 261; Oxygen of 290;
and the fourth gas of 54. The weight of Hydrogen, composed of 18 units, was taken
as atomic weight 1 (one), and the number of units in Oxygen and Nitrogen was divided
by 18. The results agreed closely with the atomic weights given in textbooks and hence
the gases were accepted as Hydrogen, Nitrogen and Oxygen. The atoms of these elements
were never observed to move in pairs except in Deuterium, The fourth gas with atomic
weight 3 was thought to be Helium, of which much had been said in the newspapers
of 1894, following its discovery by Ramsay. It was only when the atomic weight of
Helium was finally announced as 4, that the gas observed with weight 3 was realized
as obviously a different gas. Later it was given the name of Occultum.
Diagrams and detailed descriptions of the internal structure of the atoms of
Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen and of the ultimate atoms, or Anu, of which all the
elements are composed, were first published in Lucifer, London, November 1895.
Work was resumed in 1907 when 59 more elements were observed.
When the element to be examined exists in a pure, easily obtainable state, as
for example the elements Sulphur, Iron and Mercury, there was no difficulty as to the
identification, even before mapping its structure. But a difficulty arose in the case of
Lithium and other elements. A request for specimens of these elements was made to
Sir William Crookes, a friend of both the investigators, and a member for some years of
the Theosophical Society. He replied on July 18, 1907 to the mutual friend in London who
contacted him, “Leadbeater's requirements constitute a large order. Of the list of require-
ments he sends I can give metallic Lithium, Chromium, Selenium, Titanium, Vanadium
and Boron. Beryllium I can give him as an oxide. But Scandium, Gallium, Rubidium
and Germanium are almost impossible to get, except perhaps in a very impure state."
It was then found by the investigators that it was not essential for the purpose
of investigation to have an element unmixed or uncombined with any other element.
In many compounds, the constituent atoms do not exist in juxtaposition, each retaining
its atomic individuality, as is the theory in chemistry. Each atom breaks up into
smaller parts and unites its parts with similar broken-up parts of the other atom or
atoms, as the fingers of the right and left hands can interlock. In salt, Sodium and
Chlorine are interblended in such a manner as to give to the compound the outline
of a cube. By the exercise of will-power, the force holding the parts together as a
molecule can be nullified; in such a case, the separated parts of each atom instantly
group themselves as the atom was before combination. When, therefore, a salt molecule
was “broken up," the parts composing Sodium came together, as the atom of Sodium;
similarly the parts of Chlorine 'united to form a Chlorine atom.
As the investigations developed, many atoms were thus examined. The two
investigators were spending a summer holiday at Weisser-Hirsch, near Dresden in
Germany. My task was to record and draw diagrams of the elements as they were
mapped out. There was in the city of Dresden an excellent museum, one section being
devoted to minerals. I made a list of the wanted elements as they existed as compounds;
this could be obtained by consulting an encyclopaedia. I went with the list to the
Dresden Museum, and noted down in which of the show-cases the elements needed
existed as compounds. Soon after my return, C. W. Leadbeater and I went to
Dresden and I showed him the minerals I had noted. He examined them quickly
and obtained a picture of the complex configuration of the mineral in which
existed the element he needed. After returning to Weisser-Hirsch he was able
at leisure to evoke by clairvoyance the picture he had seen at Dresden. Exercising,
then, his will-power on a mineral molecule, he dissolved the complex structure. On
so doing, the separated parts of each atom united and formed an individual unit.
Thus the pure element which he desired was before him for examination and for drawing.
As each element was mapped and drawn the rough' diagram of it was passed on to
me, to draw carefully the essential parts of the element (for final half-tone line block),
to count the units in it, divide the number by 18 (the number of units in Hydrogen), and
to see how near our weights came to the weights given in the latest book on Chemistry.
During the investigations at Weisser-Hirsch in 1907, 59 elements (not counting
several isotopes observed) were drawn by me. These were printed month by month
in the magazine The Theosophist, published at Adyar, a suburb of Madras, beginning
with the issue of January 1908.
In 1907 three unrecorded elements were described, to which the provisional
names Occultum, Kalon and Platinum B were given, also a new group of three
inter-periodics labelled X, Y and Z. Observations of Radium, with a diagram, were
made at Adyar in 1908. The diagram was sent to me when I was in the United States,
and there I drew the diagram which appeared in The Theosophist for December 1908.
The diagrams of all these elements were drawn by me and appeared in the
first edition of Occult Chemistry published in 1909, which also included the article on
The Ether of Space.
In 1909, the work was resumed by Mr. Leadbeater at the Headquarters of the
Theosophical Society at Adyar, Madras. Twenty more elements were mapped out. The
rough drafts of drawings were made but they were not published, though a general
description was given in The Theosophist of July 1909, Three more unrecorded elements
and an isotope of Mercury are described there.
In 1919 in Sydney, Australia, the first compounds, salt and water, were
investigated and very rough models made.
A second edition of Occult Chemistry was issued in 1919, but it contained no
additional matter and gave no record of any work after 1907. Mr. A. P. Sinnett, who
edited this second edition, merely wrote an introduction.
In 1922 the work was again resumed in Sydney and descriptions of compounds were
then given for the first time. Water and salt had been examined in 1919, but no diagrams
drawn. Then in 1922 they were examined again and diagrams drawn, and several other
compounds were examined, all of which were published in The Theosophist, March, April,
August 1924; March, April. August, September, October 1925; July 1926. Some Carbon
compounds of the chain and ring series were among those examined. A complicated struc-
ture investigated was the diamond, composed of 594 Carbon atoms. A model was made in
Sydney and sent to me in India. A description of the structure and a photograph of the
model appeared in The Theosophist, September 1925. Hafnium was described in 1928 and
Rhenium in 1931.
After C. W. Leadbeater came to Adyar in 1930 such remaining elements of the
Periodic Table, which had not been previously investigated, were mapped out by him.
In 1932 and 1933 more material was published in The Theosophist. This included
a description of elements 85, 87 and 91 and a list of atomic weights. An element of
atomic weight 2 was reported in 1932, and given the name Adyarium, as the discovery
was made at Adyar, Madras.
In this Third Edition the results of the later researches have been incorporated.
All the material has been carefully revised and checked with the original drawings at
Adyar. New diagrams have been made where necessary and the whole has been rearranged
so as to display the facts more clearly.
In any scientific work progress continues and a text book needs amendments to
bring it up to date in accordance with later discoveries. This third edition contains such
necessary additions and corrections and represents as accurately as possible the material
at present available.
Diagrams and descriptions, hitherto unpublished, of thirty compounds, are here
included, as well as all the material published in The Theosophist.
This third edition is in three parts, Part I being the general introduction,
. Part II a detailed study of all the elements, and Part III containing all the information
available concerning the combination of the elements into compounds.
From the material the following facts emerge:
The unit of matter. It was noted in 1895 that Hydrogen, the lightest atom, was
not a unity, but was composed of 18 smaller units. Each such unit was then called an
"ultimate physical atom". Some thirty years later it seemed simpler to use the Sanskrit
term for this ultimate particle of matter; the word is "Anu," pronounced as in Italian,
or in English as "ahnoo." The word Anu does not add "s" to make the plural but
remains unchanged. The investigators knew no way of measuring the size of an Anu.
The only difference found was that the Anu existed in two varieties, positive and
negative, and• that in their formation the spirals wound themselves in opposite directions.
Thus, each negative Anu was a looking-glass image of the positive Anu. There was
no investigation made as to the nature of positive and negative.
There are at least 100 chemical elements, not counting isotopes. Clairvoyant
research in 1907 described a neutral gas, Kalon, heavier than Xenon and lighter than Radon.
Two elements, called here Adyarium and Occultum, have their place in the Periodic
Table between Hydrogen and Helium. The diagram of Occultum had been drawn in 1896;
it was drawn again in 1909. There is among the rare earths a group of three minerals
forming a new inter-periodic group. These were found in 1909 in pitchblende, which I
sent from U. S. A. to Mr. Leadbeater, and their weights published. In 1907 a fourth
member of the Platinum group was found and called Platinum B. Elements" 87 .. and" 91 "
Isotopes were seen and described as early as 1907. Some elements have a variety
which is not a true isotope, since it differs in internal arrangement only, and not in
weight. It was in 1913 that Soddy coined the term" isotope"; he had suggeste in 1910
that atoms of the same chemical element might possess different mass. In 1907, during
the clairvoyant investigations at Weisser-Hirsch, some isotopes were found; the investi-
gators used the term "meta" to denote the second variety of the element. The first
noted was the inert gas Neon, with atomic weight 20 (H=l); the second variety of
Neon, labelled Meta-Neon, had the weight 22.33 (H = 1). Then it was found that Argon, .
Krypton, and Xenon each had an isotope. At the same time a still heavier inert gas was
found, for which the label Kalon was coined, and an Isotope, Meta-Kalon. Each
meta variety or isotope of the 'inert gases has 42 Anu more than the element which
bears the name. A variety of Argon lighter than that recorded in chemistry was
found and named Proto-Argon. .
There was found in the third interperiodic group a second variety or isotope of
Platinum. We labelled the normal variety Platinum A, and the isotope Platinum B.
The diagrams of both varieties were drawn by me in Weisser-Hirsch and published in The
Theosophist. In the issue of July 1909, an isotope of Mercury is mentioned, especially
notable for the fact that it is solid.
External Shapes. The elements have definite shapes. With a few exceptions all
the elements fall into 7 groups or forms: the groups were named Spikes, Dumb-bell,
Tetrahedron, Cube, Octahedron, Crossed-bars, Star.
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