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The Paniniyavyakaranodaharanakosa is, as its French and English title indicate (La Grammaire panineenne par ses exemples; Paninian Grammar through its Example) an instrument for grasping in a concrete way both the functioning and the field application of the complex grammatical system of the Astadhyayi of Panini along with the varttika-s of Katyayana. To this end, the approximately 40,000 examples provided by the Mahabhasya, the Kasikavrttia, the Bhasavrtti and the Siddhantakaumudi, have been collected and made the subject of articles whose content corresponds to this dual objective. This work is, thus, in the form of a dictionary whose entries are those examples which are accessed either directly or through Astadhyayi's sutra-s or by India grammatical terminology. In presenting this entire work, it seemed most appropriate to follow the presentation of Paninian grammar made by the Siddhantakaumudi. Consequently, each of the volumes of the dictionary, from the second on, corresponds to a prakarana of commentary.
The authors are all grammarians: Francois Grimal and V. Venkataraja Sarma, both from the Ecole francaise d'Extreme-Orient, V. Srivatsankacharya, formerly at the Institut francais de Pondichery and S.L. Narasimham from the Institut francais de Pondichery.
Paninian Grammar Through its Examples A tool for accessing and using Paninian grammar
Paninian grammar, certainly the most ancient scientific grammatical system (4th c. BCE), occupies a central position among, the traditional disciples (exegesis, logic, etc.). As the foremost achievement of Indian analysis of the Sanskrit language, the form of which known as classical it codifies, it is the first tool for interpreting a text in this language.
Its study, however, present numerous difficulties: the concision, metalanguage, and sheer number of the rules (sutra-s (aphorisms) and varttika-s (interpretative) passage) included), the complexity of the system as a whole, and the necessity of approaching Panini's text through commentaries, which furnish the examples, but which have mostly not been translated.
Among pandits, only the grammarians, in fact, master this field, which they study over the course of a long traditional apprenticeship. And it is here that the French institutions established in India half a century ago, the Institut francais de Pondichery and the Ecole francaise d'Extreme-Orient, provide a priceless asset, with their staff of learned men trained in this tradition.
In light of these facts, the programme Paniniayavyakaranodaharanakosa or Paninian Grammar through its Examples conducted by these two institutions in collaboration with the Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha of Tirupati, aims to make the accessing and using of this grammar easier, and, in so doing, to preserve traditional learning and, at the same time, to transmit it in a new form.
The product of this programme is therefore a tool: a dictionary of the examples of Paninian grammar, to appear as a series consisting of nine books corresponding to the eight chapters (prakarana) of the Siddhantakaumudi (the commentary most frequently used by grammarian pandits), preceded by the present volume which presents the complete list of all the examples.
A dictionary of examples
This grammar. Like others, has three aspects: rules, a metalanguage, and example. The first two are available in French thanks to some excellent works: The Astadhyayi of Panini was translated by Louis Renou (Paris, 1966), to whom we also owe the Terminologie grammaticale du sanskrit (Paris, 1957). But the examples - because they are found only in the commentaries to this grammar? - have not received the same attention.
Now, if one wishes to allow access to this grammar from its concrete side, it seems to us that this must be through its examples. It is these, on the one hand, which show concretely the range of application of the rules, thereby permitting us to draw up a very detailed table of content of the grammar; on the other hand, they offer the possibility of showing, concretely, the functioning of the system thus constituted. One knows, in effect, that Paninian grammar reconstructs words out of their constitutive elements, as it analyses them, by means of a complex web of interdependent rules. For a given example, then, one may not only show what it illustrates, but also enumerate, in order, all the operations which are to be performed on its constitutive elements (that is, all the rules to apply, i.e. the prakriya) in order to arrive at the final form as it is encountered in the language.
We have assembled, for the first time so far as we know, all the examples furnished by four major commentaries on the Astadhyayi: the Mahadhasya of Patanjali (c. 150 BCE), the Kasikavrtti of Vamana and Jayaditya (7th c. CE), the Bhasavrtti of Purusottamadeva (12th c.), and the Siddhantakaumudi of Bhattojidiksita (16th C.), totaling nearly 40,000 examples and around 77,0000 mentions all told (one and the same example may be an example per se, a counter-example, or an incidental example and by remarks. One may access these articles in three ways: directly (the entries are arranged by Sanskrit alphabetical order); by searching for a particular rule of the Astadhyayi; or by searching for an Indian grammatical term, Paninian as well as traditional.
This dictionary should thus be seen as complementing the two types of works mentioned earlier.
Moreover, it can be of interest for the study of Sanskrit vocabulary.
The objective of the first volume
The first volume, entitled The Book of examples, is intended, as its title indicates, to give a simple and clear overview of the basic date these examples provide; there is also a CD-Rom of it, but the present printed version probably offers researches easier access. So, we are providing, before the dictionary has appeared in its entirety, a body of data which, as presented in this volume with its comprehensive reference to the rules and the commentaries, can serve a range of needs.
The present work is in two parts. The first is the alphabetical list of the examples followed by their references to the sutra-s under which they been mentioned by the commentators and, then, by their references to the commentaries where they appear. The second part allows the researcher to find the examples given for a sutra. Here, the sutra-s are the entries themselves, according to the order of the Astadhyayi. Following these, come the examples, grouped by commentary. The commentaries are given in chronological order.
The commentaries are cited by reference to the volume and pages of the following edition:
Vyakaranamahabhasya with the Bhasyapradipa and the Bhasyapradipaddyota. Varanasi Vol. I edited by Bhargavasastrin, 1987; vol. II et III edited by Sivedattasarman, 1987 and 1988; vol. IV and V edited by Bhargavasastrin, 1988; vol. VI edited by Dadhiramasarman, 1988.
Kasikavrtti with the Padamanjari and the Nyasa, edited by Dvarikadasasastrin and Kalikaprasadasukla. Varanasi. Vol. I and II, 1983; vol. III and IV, 1984; vol.V and VI, 1985.
Bhasavrtti edited by Srisacandracakravartibhattacarya. Rajshahi, 1918.
Vaiyakaranasiddhantakaumudi with the Balamanorama and the Tattvabodhini, edited by Giridharasarman. Varansi. Vol. I, 1998; vol. II, 1997; vol. III, 1989; vol. IV, 1987.
This programme is a collaboration between the Ecole francaise d'Extreme-Orient, the Institut francais de Pondichery, and the Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeeth of Tirupati.
At the Ecole francaise d'Extreme-Orient, F. Grimal conceived and pursued this project, and Mahopadhaya V. Venkataraja Sarma has bee the principle collaborator from the start. Dr. SL.P. Anjaneya Sarma participated at the beginning of the programme. Dr. P.T.G. Sampathkumaracharya prepared cards for the chapter on composed words and, over several years, Dr. (Mrs.) V. Lalitha made a number of contributions. With the help of Sri N. Narayanan Kutty, Dr. S.A.S. Sarma prepared the software used for entering the data from the written cards.
At the Institut francais de Pondichery, Mahamahopadhyaya M.S. Narasimhacharya, who died in 1997, has been succeeded by Mahamahopadhyaya V. Srivatsankacharya, and Dr. S. Lakshminarasimha offered his knowledge and devotion. Mrs. T.V. Kamalambal very carefully prepared a version on paper of this first volume, which permitted its rapid digitization, and Sri V. Krishnamacharya, Sri P.B. Seshadri, Sri S.S.R. Sarma, Sri S. Anandavardhan and Srimati R. Ramya tirelessly input the data.
At the Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha of Tirupati, the Vice-chancellor, professor D. Prahlada Char, welcome us with the greatest grace. His successor, professor K.E. Govindacharya, extends us the same goodwill. Professor K.V. Ramakrishnamachryulu, specialist in vyakarana and Special Officer for Vice-chancellor of the University of Jaipur, he continues to give us his valuable help. His successor at Tirupati, Dr. Viroopaksha V. Jaddipal, is also giving us his support. The computer processing of this programme is the very competent work of Sri Murali Nandi.
Panini, the great Sanskrit grammarian and a linguist of a high order of the fourth B.C. is acclaimed as a supreme scientific brain even in the contemporary world of research on the finer aspects of philology such as computational linguistics. The Sanskrit language had been in existence since the Vedic period when Panini codified it in a methodical manner giving it to us in its present form in his monumental work, Astadhyayi; and he described its phonetics in his Siksa popularly known as Paniniyasiksa. Because of the unique structure and extraordinary importance of the Astadhyayi, a number of commentaries have been written on it in subsequent periods by many scholars including Patanjali, Kaiyata, Bhattoji Diksita and Nagesa.
While explaining the aphorisms (sutra-s) of the Astradhyayi, a great many examples and counter examples have been given by Panini and his commentators to drive home their points. These illustrations have assumed particular significance due to the fact that they have bee chosen on the basis of the socio-cultural and political conditions pertaining at the time. Hence, it was necessary to collect and compile these examples in order to provide easy access to the rules and theories propounded by Panini. It is surly unnecessary to mention that long felt need has now been fulfilled by the French Institute of Pondicherry and the French Institute for Eastern Studies with the publication of this Paniniyavyakaranodaharanakosa.
The first volume of this kosa was prepared by the scholars of these French institutes with care and expertise in the Paninian grammar and published by our University. Meanwhile, the book has had unprecedented popularity and appreciation among scholars of this country and abroad, and there has been great demand for the publication of the second volume of the kosa. Requests have been received from both western and eastern scholars for a printed version of the remaining volumes. Accordingly, the scholars of the French institutes: F. Grimal, V. Venkataraja Sarma and S. Lakshminarasimham, have prepared the second volume in the same systematic and methodical manner. These scholars are well-known in the fields of Indology, and Paninian grammar in particular, and have many invaluable publications to their credit.
The role of examples in explaining and elaborating a point in question belonging to any stream of knowledge is worth mentioning and therefore the scholars, while compiling this volume, have made serious effort to collect all the examples of Paninian grammar dealing with the samasa chapter and to present them systematically in the form of a dictionary. The volume will gain a wider accessibility because of its trilingual approach: Sanskrit, French, English, to various issues of this particular chapter of the Paninian grammar. I avail myself of this opportunity to congratulate all the member of the team on their work of preparing and bringing out this volume at a time when it is needed by scholars.
The Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha, Tirupati, a centre Excellence for Traditional Sastra-s as recognized by the U.G.C. and accredited with A+ grade by the N.A.A.C., is indeed honoured to publish this volume under the Centre of Excellence Programme. My thanks go to Dr. V. Jaddipal for coordinating the timely publication of the book. I am confident that this book will definitely earn as wide an appreciation as the previous one and cater to the needs of those for whom it is intended.
May I pray the Almighty Lord Venkateswara to strengthen the links and collaboration between the R.S. Vidyapeetha, Tirupati and the French Institutes in Pondichery, so as to enable un to generate many more works of the highest standard in the years to come.
The purpose of the Paniniyavyakaranodaharanakosa is to show in a concrete and detailed way, from examples found Mahabhasya (M.), the Kasikavrtti (K.), the Bhasavrtti (BhV.) and the Siddhantakaumudi (SK.), the content and the functioning of the Paninian grammatical system.
The repertory of all the approximately 40,000 examples given by the for commentaries on the Astadhyayi (A.) of Panini has been published in the form of an initial CDRom and first printed volume. For the subsequent volumes, the necessity of organizing this enormous whole, so as to make an ordered presentation out of a dictionary of examples, has led us to adopt the plan of the SK. Each volume of our dictionary thus deals with the material treated by one of the extensive knowledge of today, of which the Paniniyavyakaranodaharanakosa is intended to transmit a part, the SK. occupies amongst the commentaries on the A., an important, if not the first, place. The present volume deals therefore with that one of these sections of the work of Bhattoji Diksita which deals with compound words; and it is the title, Samasaprakaranam, given to that section by certain editors of the SK., which we have retained as the Sanskrit title volume.
A Selection of examples of compound words
in this section, Bhattoji has grouped together 425 sutra-s of the A., for which the four commentaries offer a total of more than, 4,400 examples. For printed volume a selection has to be made, we have chosen the collection of examples given by Bhattoji. We have, however, discarded most of the examples of various sutra-s, those which are not compounds: primary derivatives (krdanta-s), secondary derivatives (taddhitanta-s) and verbal forms (tinanta-s); neither have we retained the examples of ekasesa-s, dealt with in the nine sutra-s 1.2.65-1.2.73. The selection having been made, this volume contains all the examples of compounds given by Bhattoji in his Samasaprakarana. However, since our collection is from the four commentaries mentioned above, we have added examples from the M., the K., and the BhV. These additions, numbering 383, occur mostly in the following cases.
We have added the examples that the SK. does not give in its commentary since they appear fully formed it self explanatory sustra-s. Thus, apaskarah in Apaskaro rathangam (6.1.149), dvistava and tristava in Dvistava tristava vedih (5.4.84), etc.
Examples of some type of compounds may not appear in the Samasaprakarana of the SK. Thus, for Nan (2.2.6) the SK. does not, in this chapter at least, give any example of a compound whose first member is the negation a(n) and whose second is a derivative with the suffixe -tum or -tva. We have therefore borrowed akrtum and akrtva from the BhV.
The SK. does not always give counter-example. Thus, for Daksinerma lubdhayoge (5.4.126), the example, daksinerma, appears in the Sk., but we have borrowed the counter-example, daksinermam, from the K. and from the BhV.
These three cases apart, the additions are those of examples which, compared with examples from SK., exhibit differences of formation or, not, differences of meaning. The differences of formation are either at the very beginning of the formation, at the level of the prescriptive sustra or vartika, or in the course of the prakriya, in the from of different or supplementary operations. Differences of meaning usually, though not invariably, correspond with those of formation. By way of illustration, the SK. does not systematically form all the compounds prescribed by some of the sutra-s. Thus, for Manthaudanasaktubinduvajrabharaharavivabhagahesuca (6.3.60), which prescribes compounds for all the words with udaka or uda as first member, it forms only udakamanthah/udamanthah and udakaudanah/udaudanah. These two examples are trtiyatatpurusa-s. We have borrowed udakabinduh/udabinduh and udakagahah/udagahah from the K., because these last are, respectively, a sasthitapurusa and an upapadasamasa which, as such, have a meaning different from that preceding ones.
Differences in meaning do not necessarily correspond to differences in formation. To illustrate Upamanani samanyavacanaih (2.1.55), the SK. gives only ghanasyamah. We have borrowed kumudasyeni from the K., mrgacapala from the BhV. And the M., and satrisyama from the M., K., and the BhV. The general meaning of these three compounds is the same as that of ghanasyamah, but we wish to show, with kumudasyeni, that the upamana (the object taken as comparison) and the upameya (the subject of the comparison) do not have to be of the same gender, and that, in mrgacapala, the first member, mrgi, has become mesculine, but that this is not the case for sastrisyama. We formation too, adhikumari, taken from the K, along with adhihari from the SK. The difference in formation is not, here, at the level of the prescriptive sutra, which is the same: Avyayam vibhakti… (2.1.6), but in the prakriya. The meaning is the same however, in both words, adhi has the meaning of the locative case.
We have also added some examples because of a difference in meaning, their formation being the same as that of the example, or examples, from the SK. Thus, upagiram/upagiri is the example from the SK> for Gires ca senakasya (5.4.112). The sutra it prescribes is Avyayam vibhakti…(2.1.6). it also prescribes anugrima/anugiri, which the BhV. And the K. give as examples for the same sutra (5.4.112). But in upagiram/upagiri it is the meaning of "proximity" that is to be selected in 2.1.6, whilst the meaning of "location" and "posteriority" are to be selected (still in 2.1.6) for the two other compounds respectively. The borrowing from the K. of avatakacchapah is slightly different but illustrates the same point: the formation of this compound is the same as that of the three examples from the SK. for Patresamitadayas ca (2.1.48), but the meaning "tortoise in his hole", that is: "ignorant", is different from the equally pejorative "parasite" and "coward", of these threes example.
Lastly, we have borrowed a certain number of examples from the M., in the interests, of discussions which do not appear in the other commentaries: thus, atirajakumarih, atisenanikumarih, adhikasatavarsah, adhikasastivarsah ardhartatiyah, etc.
structure of articles
In this volume, in dictionary from, examples, presented in Sanskrit alphabetical order according to their initial latter, constitute the entries of articles. An article comprises the following parts.
First part: the examples is followed by its reference to the sutra under which it is given in the commentaries, where the example appears (SK. first, then M., then Bhv.). These references are to the volumes and pages of the edition used (see below). This identification of the example ends in the number (1) or (2) or (3) in parentheses. (1) indicates that it is an example proper, (2) a counter-example, and (3) an incidental example. By "incidental example" it should be understood that the example is not directly connected with the sutra under which it appears in the editions used. Often it is incidental because it is an example, or counter-example, for a varika, a vartika, mention of which will be found in the article, either in the prakriya or in the tippani, or in both. It may also happen that an example appears as incidental due to the very the course of the discussions are to be considered as incidental.
Finally, when an example is given under more than one sutra, the same sequence is repeated after the sign.
The whole of this first part is reproduced from the first volume, including the form in which the example is mentioned as an entry, that is, without its surrounding words, if any, and without Sandhi.
The second part: when, in a commentary, the example is accompanied by one or more words and therefore by a context, we have reproduced that grouping, in bold, with indication of the commentary where it may be found.
Next, in the third part, comes the vigraha (the analysis, the analysis formulation) of the compound, and then its French and English translations. Since we are dealing with grammatical examples, we have tried as much as possible to translate in such a manner as to bring out the point in question. We have added, in square brackets, whatever does not appear in the compound but is yet necessary for comprehension, and in round ones, supplementary information when necessary and if possible. In the case of proper names or technical nouns, we have, again where it has seemed to us possible, gives a literal translation, in parentheses and in quotation marks.
The fourth part consists of a complete prakriya, that is to say, the sequence of all the operations to be successively effected in order to cover the formation of the compound up to its final inflected form. We have allowed one line for each operation, this line being itself made up of three parts. At the centre is the complete or abridged text of the sutra, or of the varika, which prescribes the operation. There follows the reference of the sutra to the A. and the SK. or a serial number in the case of a varika. On the felt, the operation is presented in schematic form, the different constituents of the word being clearly separated and without their grammatical indices (anubandha), if any. The transformations prescribed by the rule are thus distinctly visible. On the right, the operation is very briefly described, with the grammatical indices presented as in the notes.
In the case of a compound, one of whose members is an indeclinable word (avyaya), we start from an analytical formulation in which the indeclinable word no longer has its desinence.
The fifth and last part consists in the notes (tippani) whose content naturally varies but which, in their totality, provide the following information.
These notes recall, if necessary, the nature of the example, especially if it is an example or counter-example of a vartika.
They recall, as well, which is the subordinate member (upasarjana) and, if necessary, specify why it is.
They emphasize the characteristics of the example such as changes in the first member (absence of the dropping of the desinence, masculinization of a feminine, etc.), changes in the second member (substitutions, addition of a secondary suffix "end-of-compound", change of gender, etc.).
If the example is an optional form, the other form, that not resulting from the application of the rule, is mentioned in the note even if it is the subject of a separate entry (gramaniputrah/gramaniputrah, satadhanva/satadhanuh, etc.). The same goes for compounds whose form and particular meaning justify a specific rule (karaskara, taskara, etc.). The compound with standard form and meaning (karakara, tatkara, etc.) is mentioned under the same conditions.
If necessary, the derivation of the members of the compound is indicated (mada-in srimadah, gargya-and vastyayana- in gargyavatsyayanau, etc.).
Lastly, in the case of signification differences between the commentaries, the notes reproduce them. Discussions in the M. are briefly stated in the notes too (see kakataliyam, kumbhakarah, kimsabrahmacari, etc.)
This dictionary has four indices.
1. An alphabetical index of the 425 sutra-s of the Samasaprakarana of the SK. In this index, for each sutra, there are references to all the examples (example proper that is) which illustrate it in this dictionary. By "all" should be understood not only the examples intended by Bhattoji, and possibly by the other commentators, to illustrate the particular sutra, but also all the examples in the prakriya in which the sutra appears. This is because an example is also an example for because it may be that the examples of a sutra are not found under that sutra but under another. Thus, Bhattoji gives no example for Avyayam vibhakti…(2.1.6) directly; his examples for rule are found further on, under other sutra-s for which they are also examples.
For the seven sutra-s for which there are too many examples (from the prakriya-s): Anekam anyapadarthe (2.2.24), Pupasarjanam, purvam (2.2.30), Carthe dvandvah (2.2.29), Tatpurusah samanadhikaranah karmadharayah (1.2.42), Prathamanirdistam samasa upasarjanam (1.2.43), Sasthi (2.2.8) and Supo dhatupratipadikayoh (2.4.71), we mwntion only the examples given by the commentators for these particular sutra-s.
For the sutra Ke nah (7.4.13), the only examples are secondary derivatives (taddhitanta-s).
Neither the samjnasutra-s Avyayibhavah (2.1.5), Tatpurusah (2.1.22), Tatropapadam saptamistham (3.1.92), Dvigus ca (2.1.42), Prakkadarat samasah (2.1.3), Seso bahuvrihih (2.2.23), not the adhikarasutra-s Alug uttarapade (6.3.1), Tatpuruso nankarmadharayah (2.4.19), Vibhasa (2.1.11), Samhitayam (6.3.114), Samasantah (5.4.68), nor the paribhasasutra Samarthah padavidhih (2.1.1) are expressly mentioned in the articles in this selection. We have placed these sutra-s at the end of this index with the examples the commentators give, of which some appear in the selection while others do not. For the adhikarasutra Samhitayam neither the K. nor the BhV. nor the SK. give any specific example. The M. does not comment on this sutra.
2. An index of the vartika-s mentioned in the prakriya-s and the notes. These vartika-s are cited in the form they have in the M.; when their form is different in the SK., the latter form is given in parentheses in the following line. Each of these vartika-s has a serial number under which it is classified in this index, where it is followed by its reference to the sutra of the A. under which it appears (always in the M.).
3. An index of terminology. This consists of India terminology, Paninian or traditional, concerning this Samasaprakarana. From these technical terms we refer to the sutra-s concerned. The reader may then refer to the example through the first index.
4. An index examples of compounds which have not been selected. For each of these we refer to a similar example that been selected.
This dictionary may thus used for several purposes. The reader of these four commentaries on the A., wanting to known how the examples he meets with are analysed and used, may refer to the examples either directly or through index. One who wants to known what are the examples of a particular sutra will use the first index. On who wants to refer back to a particular vartika in its context may consult the second index. The third index gives access to knowledge of different aspects of this part of Paninian grammar which deals with the nominal composition.
This volume presents, in the form of a dictionary, the examples of conjugated verbal forms given by Bhattoji Diksita in his Siddhantakaumudi in the chapters in which he deals with the causative, the desiderative, the intensive, the denominative, the possible combinations of these conjugations, the middle voice, the active voice, the impersonal, the passive and the reflexive. To these examples, numbering one thousand four hundred and forty-nine, sixty-eight are added, borrowed from the Mahabhasya, the Kasikavrtti, and the Bhasavrtti. Each example constitutes the entry of an article providing, amongst other things, its complete derivation along with notes, Examples may also be accessed through six indexes: index of the sutra-s to which the examples are attached; index of the vartika-s and the ganasutra-s referred to in the articles; index of the roots on which the examples are formed; index of technical terms associated with the categories of conjugated verbal forms dealt with in this volume; index of examples by chapter of the Siddhantakaumudi, index of examples classified by tense and mood.
It is a matter of immense pleasure to write a few words in way of foreword to Paniniyavyakaranodaharanakosa- Vol.III.2.. This volume, like the previous ones, has been prepared by scholars of the French Institute of Asian Studies and of the French Institute of Pondicherry in collaboration with our Institution, Rashtriya Sanskrit University ofTirupati.
The purpose of the Paniniyavyakaranodaharanakosa-is to show in a concrete and methodical way, from examples found in the Mahabhiisya, the Kiisikiivrui, the Bhiisiivrtti and the Siddhiintakaumudi, the content and the function of the Paninian grammatical system. As a part of this major project, this volume deals with the examples given by Bhattoji Diksita in the second half of the long section dealing with conjugated verbal forms (Ii/ionIa) of his Siddhiintakaumudi.
The salient feature of each volume including the present one in the series is to present these examples systematically in the form of a dictionary. Each example is the entry of an article providing, in addition to its references and its French and English translation, a complete derivation iprakriyav followed by notes (JiPPWll). Indexes allow the examples to be reached according to different search criteria.
The contribution of Maharsi Panini who flourished in the fourth century B.C. to the field of Sanskrit in particular and linguistics in general is well-known to the world of scholars. On the A~!adhyiiy[, his magnum opus, a number of commentaries have been composed in later periods by many eminent scholars including Pataiijali, Vamana, Jayaditya. Purusottama and Bhattoji Diksita. In order to explain the aphorisms isutra-s) of the Astiidhyayi, a number of examples and counter examples have been given by these commentators to further elucidate the grammatical process. These illustrations assume particular significance since they retlect the socio-cultural and socio-political conditions prevailing at the time. Hence, it was necessary to collect all these examples and utilise them to provide easy access to the rules formulated by Panini.
The first two volumes of this Kosa. prepared by the scholars of these French Institutes with care and expertise, have gained unprecedented popularity and appreciation among scholars of this country and abroad and there has been a great demand for the publication of the subsequent volumes. Requests have been received from both western and eastern scholars for the printed version of the remaining volumes. Accordingly, the scholars 01" the French Institutes: F. Grirnal, V. Venkataraja Sanna and S. Lakshminarasimham, have prepared the third volume in the same systematic and methodical manner as they prepared the earlier volumes. These three scholars are well-known in the field oflndology and Paninian Grammar in particular, and have many invaluable publications to their credit. I avai I mysel f of this opportunity to congratulate all them on their work preparing and publishing this volume at a time when it is needed by scholars.
The Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha, Tirupati, a Centre of Excellence for Traditional Sastras as recognized by the U.G.c. and accredited with A+ Grade by the N.A.A.C., is indeed honoured to publish this volume under the Centre of Excellence Programme. I am contident that this book will definitely earn wide appreciation as the previous ones and cater to the needs of those for whom it is intended. I am happier to mention that this volume is published as our revered institution is celebrating its Golden Jubilee Year - 2010.
I pray that Lord Venkateswara may strengthen the bonds between the R..S Vidyapeetha, Tirupati and the French Institutes in Pondicherry, so as to enable us to generate many more works of high order in the years to come.
According to the plan adopted for the second volume of the Paninian Grammar through its Examples this volume is presented in the form of a dictionary whose entries are the examples given by Bhattoji Diksita in a part of his Siddhiintakaumudi, in this case in the second half of the long section dealing with conjugated verbal forms (tinanta) This second half comprises the prakarana-s (chapters) 53-64 treating successively of the causative (53: nicprakarana, sutra 2575/1.4.55 to 2607/2.4.46), the desiderative (54: sanprakarana, sutra 2608/3.1.7 to 2628/8.3.62), the intensive (55-56: yanprakarana, satra \ 2629/3.1.22 to 264917.4.22 and yanlukprakarana, sutra 2650/2.4.74 to 2656/1.1.4), the denominative (57-58: namadhiituprakarana, sutra 2657/3.1.8 to 2677/3.1.21 and kandvddi-prakarana, satra 2678/3.1.27), of the possible combinations of these derived conjugations (59: pratyayamiilaprakaranay, of the middle voice (60: iumanepadaprakarana; sutra 2679/1.3.13 to 2744/1.3.77), of the acti\e voice (61: parasmaipadaprakarana, sutra 274511.3.79 to 2755/1.3.89), of the impersonal and of the passive (62: bhiivakarmatinprakarana, sutra 2756/3.1.67 to 276517.1.69), of the reflexive (63: karmakartrtin- prakarana, sutra 2766/3.1.87 to 2772/3.1.90), and of the meaning of tenses and moods (64: iakiuiirthaprakarana; sutra 2773/3.2.112 to 2828/3.4.5). In this volume are presented the examples given by Bhattoji in prakarana-s 53 to 63. These examples number 1449 and we have added 68 others borrowed from the three other commentaries.
Structure des articles
An article comprises the following parts.
The entry. The entry is the example, in the present case the conjugated verbal form alone. This is followed by the reference of the sutra under which the example is given in the commentaries. This reference is to the Astadhyayi (A.) and then, after a slash, comes the reference to the Siddhanta- kaumudi (SK). After this, there is the reference of the commentary (or references of commentaries) where the example appears: first the SK., then the Mahabhasya (M.), then the Kasikavrtti (K.), and then the Bhasavrtti (BhV.). These references are to volumes and pages of the editions used (see below p. xvii). These indications end with the figure (1), (2) or (3) in brackets. The figure (l) indicates a direct example, (2) a counter-example and (3) an incidental example. By "incidental example" it should be understood that the example is not directly connected with the sutra under which it appears in the editions used. It may be an example (or counter-example) of a vartika complementing the sutra, vartika which is mentioned in the body of the article, either in the prakriya (derivation) or in the tippani (notes) or in both. An example may also appear as incidental due to the very composition of the commentary, particularly in the SK.
When the example is given under more than one sutra, the same sequence is repeated after the sign -.
Second part. If the example is accompanied in a commentary by one or several words, and thus has a context, we have reproduced the whole followed, where necessary, by the mention of the commentary where it is found.
The third part is the analysis (vigraha) of the example. The roots at the beginning of this analysis are cited with their markers (anubandha-s), their meanings and their numbers as they appear in the dhdtupdtha of the edition of the SK.6 In order to facilitate their identification in the dictionaries we have inserted, between the roots thus given and their meanings, their form without anubandha. The three indications which follow, specifying whether the root is transitive (sakarmaka) or intransitive (akarmaka), provided or not with the accrement i (set or aniti, conjugated in the active voice (parasmaipadin) or in the middle (iitmanepadin) or in both (ubhayapadin), are borrowed from the Krdantariipamdlii/ The morphological characterization of the conjugated form follows this.
Fourth part. The example is translated into both French and English. When the example of the SK. has a context the translation of the word or words’ constituting the context is given between brackets. Additions between square brackets are to help comprehension where necessary. Such additions are sometimes borrowed from commentaries other than the SK. when they cite the same example for the same reason but more explicitly.
Translating these examples calls for some arbitrary choices, for instance: between meanings of the root when several meanings are given; between genders for the pronoun subject, where we have systematically chosen the masculine except when the subject is more obviously feminine or neuter for the "impersonal" forms; and lastly, between the meanings of the denominatives explained by the vartika "Tad acaste tat karoti": here we have chosen the meaning tad acaste and translated it by "he describes that".
Again, due to the absence of context and to the fact that the meanings of these past tenses which are lan ("imperfect"), lun ("aorist"), and lit ("perfect"), correspond not at all or only in part to our past tenses we have translated these three tenses by the passe compose in French and by the preterite in English.
Moreover, the aim of being as literal as possible from the grammatical point of view has led us to push translations to the limits of correctitude, We have translated literally the forms called "impersonal", that is, those forms whose endings express the meaning only of the root (bhava). To do this we have translated the meaning of the root by the infinitive in French and by the gerund in English and the temporal determination by the expression « il y a » ("there is") in the requisite tense, thus for the aorist "impersonal" ajagari : « il y a eu 'se reveiller' » ("there was 'awakening:"), etc.
The fifth part consists of a complete prakriya (derivation), that is, the sequence of every operation to be successively carried out so as to reach the actual conjugated form. One line is given to each operation and this line is made up of three parts. The entire or abridged text of the sutra or vartika that prescribes the operation is at the centre. There follows the reference to the sutra in the A. and in the SK., or a serial number in the case of a vartika. The operation in schematic form is shown on the left. The different constitutive elements of the word are precisely separated here," without their markers (anubandha). The transformations prescribed by each rule are thus clearly shown. The operation is very briefly described on the right, the markers appearing here as they also appear in the notes.
The sixth and last part consists of notes (tippani). These notes first of all provide, where necessary, complementary explanations for a deeper understanding of the prakriya. Thus, as regards the desiderative bubhusati ("he wants to be"), the tippani explains what the prakriya does not, that is, why, according to sutra 7.2.12 "Sani grahaguhos ca", that form of a root set does not have the accrement i. The tippani also explains why that same form is a counter-example for satra 1.3.62 "Purvavat sanah" according to the SK. and a counter-example as well for sutra 7.4.80 "Oh puyanjy apare" according to the KV. and the BhV.
Similarly, it is the notes that show the successive stages necessary to arrive at forms such as arohayate in Arohayate hasti ("The elephant allows itself to be mounted") or darsayate in Darsayate Bhavah ("Bhava appears of himself [to the devotees]"), examples for sutra 1.3.67 "Ner anau yat karma nau cet sa kartanddhyane", These stages cannot appear in the prakriya.
The optional forms are cited and explained in the notes under each of the forms concerned. Thus, under carikarti, carikarti, carkariti and carkarti - plus carikariti and carikariti, which are not amongst the examples given by Bhattoji - are cited and explained the six optional forms of the intensive with the suffix dropped of the root KR- ("he does intensely or repeatedly"), optional forms according to sutra 7.4.92 "Rtas ca" and 7.3.94 "Yano va". In the same way, in the tippani of each of the three examples sapatiyate, sapatnayate and sapatniyate, different forms with different meanings but derived from the same noun sapatni with the same suffix kyan, all these three forms are mentioned and their differences explained.
The notes also explain the meaning of certain technical terms concerning the notions treated in this volume, for instance, kriydsamabhihiira, karmakartr, etc.
They explain the meaning of some examples when the case warrants it.
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