The present book is a raft to cross easily and successfully the oast and unassailable ocean of the texts-the Vyasabhasya and its two commentaries, namely Tattvavaisaradi (of Vacaspati) and Yogavarttika (of Vijnanbhiksu). With the help of this book students will be able to study these works without any logical matters, they will hardly have any oceasion to take the help from traditional Sanskrit Panditas for all difficult words and technical terms have been explained with as much clarity as possible. The author, who grasp of Yogavidya is remarkable, has tried admirably to afford claborate and brilliant expositions of all the primo facie and established views and also has given the sources of citations with appropriate remarks.
The Book will be of in means help not only to the teachers, who often find it difficult to make the students comprehend the drift of the sentences in the aforesaid texts.
In the group of six astika (believer in the Veda, heaven etc.) philosophies, Samkhya and Yoga are regarded as sister philosophies. While Nyaya and Vaisesika are called the science of proofs, Samkhya and Yoga are regarded as the science of the knowables. The Samkhyasutra of Kapila and the Yogasutra of Patanjali are the original texts of these two philosophies. The source of both of these is the Veda. The six branches of astika philosophy namely Samkhya-Yoga, Nyaya-Vaisesika and Mimamsa-Vedanta have evolved from the Vedic root.
The Yoga philosophy, which chiefly concerns with the inhibition of the fluctuations of citta, enjoys a superior position being associated with and augmented by the vrttis (short commentaries), which simply show the senses of words, by the bhasya (scholium) and the commentaries thereon, and by such extra-ordinary commentaries as the Yogasiddhantacandrika (on the Yoga-sutra) and the Vivarana (on the Vyasabhasya).
Yoga as a prominent subject has been propounded variously in the Natha, Hatha and other sects, but in the present work, I have devoted myself solely to expound Yoga according to the school of Patanjali.
Textual research has two aspects-the doctrinal and the historical. Since the basis and source of both of these aspects are different, they are independent in nature. In the present work I have centralized my activities in expounding the doctrinal side of the Sanskrit commentaries concerning with the subject matter. A separate work on the history of Yoga is under preparation.
Vyasadeva composed, in a Philosophical style, the great scholium called Vyasbhasya on the Yoga-sutra of Patanjali. This is the main commentary dealing elaborately with the topics considered in the Yoga Philosophy. In this bhasya Vyasadeva dose not mainly follow the technique of propounding established doctrines in the form of catechism showing the doubts and their solutions, on the contrary he established doctrins by refuting such prima facie views as are not expressly stated. Owing to this peculiar style, there arises difficulty in understanding the subjects discussed in the Bhasya.
It appears that observing this difficulty faced by the readers, Vacaspati Misra and Vijnanabhiksu composed the commentaries Tattvavaisaradi and Yogavarttika on the Vyasabhasya respectively by following 'the technique of doubt-solution' (i.e. first doubts are presented and then their solutions). While explaining the Vyasabhasya the sharp intelligence of Vacaspati, a specialist in all philosophies and Vijnanabhiksu has rendered the two commentaries independent as well as original. Both the commentaries are regarded as expressing the heart of the Vyasabhasya and as such they are taken to be the two eyes of the Bhasya. An advanced aspirant, who has entered into Yoga through the medium of the Maniprabha and other commentaries on the Yoga-sutra, can realize the highly subtle philosophical aspect of Yoga with the help of these two eye-like commentaries and consequently can render himself capable of experiencing divine sentiment (rasa). Though this experience of rasa is not describable by words, yet the rasa itself may be experienced by immersing into the ocean of yogic knowledge.
Though some expositions in Hindi of the Vyasabhasya have been published, yet when the Vyasabhasya is seriously studied with the Tattvavaisaradi and Yogavarttika, then there arise obstacles caused by (i) the variant readings, by (ii) the changing of place of the sentences and by (iii) doubt about the genuineness of sentences read or not read in the manuscripts and the-published texts. These three compel a researcher to examine and evaluate the published and unpublished texts through the principles of textual criticism.
This confusing and disorderly condition is found in the Tattvavaisaradi and Yogavarttika also. Even the Yoga-sutra is not beyond this condition. Therefore on account of carrying on a textual study on the Yoga-sutra, Vyasabhasya, Tattvavaisaradi and Yogavarttika, relevant manuscripts preserved in the Institutions of oriental research and Sanskrit learning in Madras, Tanjore, Bangalore, Karnatak, Keral, Bombay, Pune, Baroda, Jaipur, Jodhpur, Alwar, Bikaner, Allahabad, Lucknow, Mathura, Vrindavan, Delhi, Varanasi and other places have been collected. These MSS. have been referred in the present work as क, ख, ग etc. The elaborate introduction bears a critical study chiefly showing the acceptability of some of important variant readings. This study may be deemed as the first as well as the most useful in the literary field of yogic research.
The present work contains a translation with copious annotations in Hindi, our national language. For the first time the Vyasabhasya along with its two commentaries, namely Tattvavaisaradi and Yogavarttika have been explained here. Since the doctrinal differences of the authors of these two commentaries are found in every place they have been selected for explanation.
The real cause of this doctrinal difference lies in the difference in the angle of vision. While vacaspati Misra explains the doctrines propounded in the Vyasabhasya through the view-point of the' Yoga philosophy only, Vijnanabhiksu explains them through his reconciliatory point of view concerning samkhya-Yoga and Vedanta doctrines, and thus renders the Yoga philosophy all- embracing and sublime.
In the Balapriya section of the present work an attempt has been made to attribute originality, authoritativeness etc. to the deliberations of the commentators Vacaspati Misra and Vijnanabhiksu and thus these have been augmented and amplified. Moreover, to facilitate reading the commentarial passages bearing expressions. that show doubt have been placed separately from the passages that express solutions.
In the appendix a glossary of technical terms of Yoga has been appended with the commentarial passages containing their definitions.
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