The bilingual volume (Hindi-English) on the linguistic problems of Translation between Hindi and other major languages of the world was completed as an International sympoSium through correspondence. It was mainly conceived and convened by Prof. G. Gopinathan of the Department of Hindi and co-edited by Prof S. Kandaswamy of the Department of English, Calicut University. The volume contains 36 papers comprising problems arising out of the theory and practice of translation with particular emphasis on the translation between Hindi and other major languages of the world, A discussion on the various practical problems faced by the translators in India is also included, Hindi is fast developing as a lingua-franca of India and as a medium of communicating the Composite Culture of India. Translation between Hindi and other languages has been gathering momentum during the last few decades. The present study will have theoretical and practical implication in the promotion of translation and for further study and research in the field of Translation, Contrastive Linguistics and Language Teaching. A translation study is a newly developing area in the Asian Languages and the present study is a pioneering one in this field of Applied linguistics and Literary Research.
The present volume is the outcome of a project on linguistic problems of translation between Hindi and other major languages of the world, which was conceived and implemented as an International Symposium through correspondence. The Convener contacted internationally reputed scholars and agencies to get a list of experts in the field of translation between Hindi and other languages. There was an overwhelming response from many of them. An advisory Committee consisting of Indian and foreign scholars was formed. Letters were sent out to eminent experts for contribution of articles either in Hindi or in English. Originally, about 35 major languages of the different linguistic groups of the world were sought to be included. The correspondence in this regard was carried out for more than two years. We received 36 articles comprising problems arising out of the theory and practice of translation with particular emphasis on the translation of Hindi text into other major languages of the world and vice versa.
Hindi is fast developing as a lingua franca of India and it is becoming popular as a powerful medium of Indian culture in foreign countries. Translation between Hindi and other Indian and foreign languages has been gathering momentum during the last few years. Even though Hindi is taught in almost all countries and translation from and into Hindi has been undertaken for the last many years, yet no attempt has been made so far to study the problems and possibilities of translation between 1-lindi and other Indian and foreign languages. The present volume is a novel venture in the field of translation studies in a country like India, where the field of scientific study of the process and problems of translation is only at a dormant stage.
The study of linguistic problems connected with translation is highly useful in making the translation between Hindi and other languages more effective and scientific, especially in the context of Hindi becoming a link language and a national translation medium in India and an important language in the world sphere, particularly in the UNESCO and the U. N. In a world torn by clash of cultures and values, translation is the only unifying force which can turn into reality the ever-living concept of One World. A study of the problems of translation can bring out the contrastive elements in the world culture and also help to bring about a meaningful co-existence of diverse cultures.
The symposium has been organized in foui- parts. Part 1 comprises articles dealing with various theories of translation. Part 11 consists of articles touching upon linguistic problems of translation between Hindi and major Asian and European languages like Arabic, Chinese, English, German, French, Russian, Italian, Czech, Romanian, Japanese, Indonesian and Sinhalese. These articles, written by Indian and foreign scholars, were received both from socialist countries and other democratic countries of the world, although the best responses were from USSR, Czechoslovakia and U.S.A. Part Ill contains articles which deal with problems of translation between Hindi and other major Indian languages. This is a promising field of study for two reasons: first, in a multi-lingual country like India, Hindi has assumed the status of an effective medium, through which the regional literatures of the different parts of India can be brought closer to one another. Secondly, translation agencies like the Sahitya Akademy, the National. Book Trust (NBT) and the Bharatiya Jnanpith have been bringing out authentic translations from various Indian languages first into Hindi and then from Hindi into other languages. Hindi thus serves as a cementing force for preserving the fundamental unity and diversity of Indian culture. Many foreign scholars, engaged in the work of translation from Indian into foreign languages, translate not merely from Hindi into foreign languages but also translate works from other Indian languages through available translations of them in Hindi. In part IV, a discussion has been organized on the following five points relevant to translations and translators:
(1) The question of popularity of translations in India-readability, quality of translation, market,reader, selection of work and review of service done by translation agencies.
(2) Practical problems faced by the translators.
**Contents and Sample Pages**
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