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Books > Ayurveda > Ayurveda > Reviews on Indian Medicinal Plants (Set of 13 Volumes)
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Reviews on Indian Medicinal Plants (Set of 13 Volumes)
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Reviews on Indian Medicinal Plants (Set of 13 Volumes)
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Description
Foreword

Emerging and reemerging infections and spread of deadly drug-resistant strains of organisms are posing a challenge to the Global Public Health in terms of their treatment. The solution perhaps lies in the Indigenous Systems of medicine, and the plant- based drugs which could provide both concept of therapy, as well as therapeutic agent to complement modern medicine especially in management of life-style diseases and communicable diseases. Medicinal plants products could also prove useful in reducing / minimize the adverse effects of various chemotherapeutic agents as well as in prolonging longevity and attaining positive health.

The consequent global interest in medicinal potential of plant during the last few decades is quite logical. Scientific research activities have been focused not only on known but also on numerous lesser known medicinal plants mentioned in the ancient texts. Enormous amount of scientific data on various aspects has been generated during the period.

In this backdrop, the Council initiated the development of databases of multidisciplinary scientific information on medicinal plants in form of Monograph series. The focus has been on pharmacognostic, photochemical, Pharmacological, clinical, toxicological studies and Ayurvedic description. Additional information on regional names, habit and habit uses ascribed, ethno botanical studies, etc. has also been included. The first volume in this series deal with over 200 plant species. The next three volumes covering over 600 plant species are also being published simultaneously. The Monographs may be of great relevance and importance in developing new herbal drugs for health care, establishing correlation ship between the uses/ claims made in Indigenous systems of Medicine, particularly Ayurveda, and understanding the scientific basis of their action. The compiled information may also be of great help in defending issues related to Intellectual Property Rights and patents on Indian medicinal plants at global level. The compilation is also intended to serve as an inventory of the Indian medicinal plants, which have been investigated. The leads could e further followed up for in-depth research.

I Trust that this initiative of the Council and the resulting series of the publication arising there from will be of immense help to researchers, academicians, scientific bodies, policy makers, regulatory authorities, drug industry, physicians of different systems of medicine and others interested in the area of medicinal plants.

I deeply appreciate the efforts of the Chairman, and the members of the Scientific Advisory Group and the Technical Review committee. The contribution made by late Professor P.K. Das needs special mention. His untimely and sad demise took him away from us before these volumes could appear in print.

It is hoped this publication would help in meeting the unmet need for new and better drugs.

 

Preface

Medicinal plants belong to the earliest known health care products that have been used by the mankind. Over three-quarters of the world population rely on the use of traditional medicines for their primary health care needs. The medicinal plants are not only major components of the many formulations used in Indigenous Systems o Medicines but also of a large number of drugs in Allopathic. In India, with one of the oldest ethno botanical tradition in the world, medicinal plants are the backbone of all major systems of medicine.

Indian Council of Medical Research has been supporting various research programmers in the area of medicinal plants and Indigenous systems of Medicine since 1929. In the recent past, under the leadership of Dr. G.V. Satyavati, the then Sr. Deputy Director general and later director General, the ICMR published a compilation of data on scientific work conducted in India on medicinal plants in two volumes of Monograph in 1976 and 1987, respectively, covering a total of about 900 plant species ( alphabet A to P as per their botanical names). There have been several other publications in the last few decades. The coverage of plant in these and other publications was selective or focused primarily on aspects like agronomy, botany, cultivation and chemistry. There was however, less focus on pharmacological, clinical, toxicological and drug development aspects.

In the interregnum there has been an information explosion on medicinal plants. A vast amount of information is available on published and unpublished scientific data spanning various related specialties. systematic compilation of this information became essential for its fruitful management and utilization. In the changed present day scenario this compilation needed to be viewed with a contemporary perspective which could lend support to IPR issues, priorities setting in R&D, credence to plant based drugs, global acceptance, boost of trade, and exploitation of untapped indigenous resources for better health care. The international agencies like WHO too, have advocated for development of databases which could help in harnessing full potential of medicinal plants and also help in protecting country’s ethno medicinal and biological wealth.

The present series of monographs is an effort by ICMR in this direction.

Extensive search has been made for relevant literature from primary, secondary and tertiary sources, as well as by contacting various universities, medical institutions and individual researchers involved in activities related to medicinal plants. The monograph on each plant includes regional names, habit and habitat, Ayurvedic description (wherever available), Sanskrit synonyms, uses ascribed, ethno botanical studies, the details of botanical, pharmacognostic, chemical, pharmacological/ biological, clinical and toxicological aspects backed by complete references on each aspect of the information cited. Colored photographs of some important medicinal plants have been also included.

The available literature information is so enormous that the total number of 600 plant species with 8400 references under alphabet ‘A’ (as per botanical names) could be covered in 3 volumes. The present publication is first in the series, and covers over 220 plant species (Abe-Alle). The second (Alli-Art) and Third (Are-Azi) volumes, have also been prepared and are being published simultaneously.

It is hoped that the series of publication may be useful for researchers, scientific bodies, herbal drug industry and other organizations. The policy planners, regulatory and health authorities may also find it equally useful.

 

Introduction

Efforts have been made to compile published research efforts on the taxa found in India whether indigenous or introduced. The present volume is the first of the series of Reviews on Indian Medicinal Plants comprising 60 plant genera comprising 223 species from Abelmoschus- Allemanda

The Monographs cover largely the studies on Indian medicinal plants conducted by scientists in Indian institutions and published in national and international journals. At places work done by Indian scientists in collaboration with foreign laboratories or carried out exclusively in foreign laboratories has also been covered. Citations of foreign scientists and the work carried out abroad have been made wherever it was found relevant to the text. Plants imported in India have not been included. The plants Achras Zapota and Agati species have not been included due to change of nomenclature status of the plant species of Manilkara Zapota and Sesbania species, respectively.

The sources of information included survey of published literature including primary, secondary and tertiary sources, besides the literature made available by various scientists, academicians, medical colleges, research institutions and universities involved in activities related to medicinal plants / Indices.

General Information

This section deals with the information mainly related to nomenclature, habit and habitat, regional names and the claims about the medicinal value of the plant species. To have an ideal of the possible medicinal potential of the plants, an attempt has been made not only to include information from the Ayurvedic literature and Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India but also from the beliefs and practices prevalent in India on the basis f folk lore or empirical / traditional uses of certain plants, as reported in various well reputed compendia and ethno botanical surveys conducted. The details provided under the following sub-heads are mentioned as under:

Botanical Nomenclature

The plant genera and species are arranged by their botanical names in alphabetical order. The nomenclature of many plants has undergone revision during the last few decades. The names of the plant given in the cited references have been updated as far as possible to provide currently accepted names. In case of change of name, the obsolete names have been given as synonyms in the following order: the currently accepted name is followed by the corresponding names given in Hooker’s flora of British India or other subsequent relevant literature in addition to Indian flora and finally by the title name of the plant given in the reference cited, if is different from the earlier mentioned names. Further to this, in cases where the currently accepted binomial nomenclature starts with alphabets other than “A” such names have been provided in the footnote for the convenience of the readers. Similarly, the names of the families have been given according to the currently accepted pattern.

Habit and Habitat

A brief account of habit and habitat for each species has been also included in the Monograph.

Regional and Other Names

For most of the regional names of the plant included in this volume, information has been compiled mainly from Chopra et al. (1956, 1958), Nandkarni (1954) as well as Wealth of India (1985). In cases where names of the plants in various languages were not available, either only English names or local names as mentioned in various ethno botanical reports have been included.

Ayurvedic description

The Sequences of Ayurvedic description given in these volumes is the main Sanskrit name, its Synonyms, the Ayurvedic properties i.e. Rasa, Guna, virya, Vipaka, the basis of Ayurvedic pharmacology, actions and uses is given according to their importance. Diacritical marks have been used for correct pronunciation and to have correct meaning of these words.

Based on the above aspects Ayurvedic details of some of the allied species having similar properties are given. kA word of caution is very essential as some of the allied botanical species may not have similar actions rather allied species may be highly poisonous, for example Aconitum palmatum and A. hetero phylum are not poisonous whereas all other species of Aconitum are poisonous.

Therapeutic Uses Mentioned in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia

The actions and therapeutic uses of the plant drugs as reported in the three volumes of the official publication-Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, have been mentioned.

Properties and Uses Ascribed

The main sources of the information about the uses ascribed to various plant species under this head, are the publications by Chopra et al. (1956, 1958), Nadkarni (1954), and Wealth of India (1985). Ethno botanical Studies

These cover beliefs and practices prevalent in India as per published reports of various ethno botanical surveys. In some cases the uses of plant when employed in combination with other plant(s) have also been mentioned. However, no details about the formulation, method of preparation or dosage have been given.

Pharmacognostic Studies

Pharmacognosy part mainly includes important macro-and microscopic characters of various parts of the plant viz., leaves flowers, fruits, seeds, wood, bark, rhizome, root, lattices, gum, resin, oil fats, and waxes and fluorescence analysis. At places, wherever available. At places, wherever available, the relevant information and comparative features of the adulterants and substitutes have also been given. Pharmacognostic studies on medicinal plants which now form a part of chapters in standard books on pharmacognosy have not been included.

Chemical Studies

A through survey of the chemical studies done on the plants has been attempted, taking into account even those references where the plant has been mentioned in general photochemical screaming for the presence or absence of a particular group of chemical constituents. Thus the reader may find some insignificant journals also being cited.

An attempt has been made to relate the pharmacological / biological activity with the chemical constituents of the plant or the part of the plant used in Indian Systems of Medicine. In such an attempt, the chemical studies done on a particular plant have been described in the order of the occurrence of the chemical constituents in different parts of the plant such as whole plant, aerial parts, stem, stem bark, leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds, root rhizome, root bark. This has been done purposely to meaningfully correlate the biological activity exhibited by a medicinal plant or a particular part thereof under description with the chemical constituent(s) occurring in the plant or the particular part. Thus one may encounter a chemical constituent being repeated at several places in the text under different parts of the plant.

The reader may find this approach unacceptable if one is looking from a pure chemical review point view. A more acceptable write-up under the chemical studies would have been to describe the chemical constituents according to the chemical nature of the components i.e., alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, fatty acids etc. But this approach would have defeated the purpose of correlating the activity of a part of the plant used in Indigenous Systems of Medicine with the constituents occurring in that respective part of the plant.

Under the chemical studies, the generic names of phytoconstituents given by the authors have been largely retained in the text. At places if the compound under generic name has been fully characterized, a complete chemical name has been mentioned to give an idea of the chemical structure, as the text does not contain the graphical representation of chemical structures

The structural drawings of the chemical constitutions described are not purposely included in the text; the structures are already given in the publications cited under references or can be seen from other standard publications like Compendium on Indian Medicinal Plants (CSIR), Merck Index (Merck & Co., New Jersey ), etc.

Under the chemical write-up coverage is also given to component like proteins, carbohydrates, fats, fibers, nitrogen contents, ash or even mention is made of inorganic mineral components. This has been done taking into view the nutritional value of the plant. At places the reader may also find inclusion of chemical analytical methods for the estimation of particular constituent. Tissue culture studies carried out to enhance the parentage of chemical constituent have also been included at place under chemical studies. In cases where a plant has been extensively worked out chemically and a very large number of constituent plant has been extensively worked out chemically and a very large number of constituents have been reported the text under the sub-title chemical studies has been condensed by summarizing the constituents in tabular forms. Classifying the constituents according to their photochemical groups.

Pharmacological and Biological studies

This heading incorporates biological activities as reported in experimental animals, helminthes, microbes including bacteria, fungi, viruses and infecting parasites. Besides systemic pharmacology, wherever required, effects on experimental disease models have been described. In selected cases, effects on cattle, poultry and agriculture have been included in the text. Most of the pharmacological actions reported are on crude extracts or active fraction. However, in case of many promising plants, active principles have been identified and studied pharmacologically. In general, the traditional and Ayurvedic uses of the plants are so wide and varied that it was not possible to correlate the pharmacological actions with the uses of the plants. But wherever such correlation exists, the same has been highlighted.

Large number of plants have been screened by Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, for various biological activities and results published in series of papers. But a very limited number of plants have been reported to have confirmed activity in their fractionated extracts. As the effort is to consolidate and cover most of the studies carried out and published, the results of the preliminary biological screening have also been mentioned in the Monographs for the benefit of the readers.

Pharmacological actions of the plants have been described under classified under classified subheads antimicrobial, general pharmacology, cardiovascular system, central nervous system, respiratory system, hypolipidaemic, hepatorprotective, hypoglycaemic, antifertility and wound healing activities etc.

Toxicity in animals is mostly limited to determination of LD 50. However, in case of potential therapeutic agents more detailed toxicology has been studied and the same has been included in the text. Toxicity details in cattle and poultry, wherever available, have been given. The animal toxicity comes under the head Pharmacological and biological Studies.

 

Contents To The Vol.I

 

  Message IV
  Foreword V
  Preface VII
  Acknowledgement IX
  Abbreviations XI
  Introduction XV
  Monographs  
  Abelmoschus 1
  Abies 11
  Abrus 18
  Abutilon 39
  Acacia 53
  Acalypha 110
  Acampe 122
  Acanthopanax 124
  Acanthospermum 125
  Acanthus 127
  Acer 132
  Achillea 136
  Achyranthes 140
  Aconitum 165
  Acorus 193
  Acrocarpus 223
  Acrocephalus 225
  Acronychia 226
  Acrostichum 228
  actaea 230
  Actiniopteris 232
  Actinodaphne 235
  Adansonia 239
  Adelocarym 243
  Adenanthera 244
  Adenia 249
  Adenocalymma 251
  Adenostemma 255
  Adhatoda 257
  Adiantum 288
  Adina 298
  Adonis 305
  Aegiceras 306
  Aeginetia 308
  Aegle 310
  Aerides 337
  Aerva 338
  Aeschynomene 347
  Aesculus 349
  Aganosma 357
  Agapetes 361
  Agave 362
  Ageratina 375
  Ageratum 376
  Agalia 388
  Agrimonia 399
  Agrostophyllum 403
  Agyneia 405
  Ailanthus 406
  Ainsliaea 419
  Aisandra 422
  Ajuga 426
  Alangium 432
  Albizia 445
  Alcea 481
  Alectra 485
  Aleurites 487
  Alhagi 490
  Alisma 493
  Allemanda 495
  Appendices  
I List of Plants reported for only ethnobotanical / traditional uses 503
II List of some important books, treatises and encyclopaedias referred 506
  Indices  
I Index of botanical names 517
II Index of bioactive phytoconstituents 526
III Index of Pharmacological and Biological activity 528
IV Index of regional and other names 535
 
Content To Vol-II
 
  Allium 1
  Allophylus 90
  Alnus 93
  Alocasia 96
  Aloe 101
  Alphonsea 116
  Alpinia 118
  Alstonia 129
  Alternanthera 150
  Altingia 159
  Alysicarpus 162
  Amaranthus 164
  Amaryllis 193
  Amberboa 194
  Ambroma 196
  Ammannia 205
  Ammi 209
  Amomum 215
  Amorphophallus 221
  Ampelocissus 227
  Anacardium 231
  Anacyclus 247
  Anagallis 251
  Anamirta 259
  Ananas 261
  Anaphalis 268
  Ancistrocladus 275
  Andrachne 279
  Andrographic 283
  androsace 307
  Anemone 309
  Anethum 314
  Angelica 328
  Angelonia 337
  Anisochilus 339
  Anisomeles 343
  Annona 353
  Anodendron 371
  Anogeissus 373
  Anthemis 384
  Anthocephalus 387
  Anthriscus 393
  Antiaris 395
  Anticharis 397
  Antidesma 398
  Antigonon 402
  Apama 404
  Aphanamixis 408
  Apium 418
  Aporusa 429
  Aquilaria 433
  Arachis 436
  Araucaria 449
  Arctium 453
  Ardisia 456
  Appendices  
I List of Plants reported for only ethnobotanical / traditional uses 467
II List of Plants not included due to change in botanical nomenclature 471
iii List of some important books, treatises and encyclopaedias referred 473
  Indices  
i Index of botanical names 483
ii Index of bioactive phytoconstituents 492
iii Index of Pharmacological and Biological activity 494
IV Index of regional and other names 501
 
Content To Vol-III
 
  Areca 1
  Argemone 30
  Argyreia 61
  Ariopsis 74
  Arisaema 75
  Aristolochia 80
  Arnebia 103
  Artabotrys 114
  Artemisia 123
  Arthromeris 180
  Artocarpus 182
  Arundina 201
  Arundo 202
  Asclepias 206
  Asparagus 212
  Asphodelus 252
  Aspidopterys 265
  Asplenium 258
  Aster 260
  Astilbe 264
  Astragulus 266
  Asystasia 273
  Atalantia 276
  Athyrium 285
  Atriplex 286
  Atropa 287
  Atylosia 296
  Avena 302
  Averrhoa 305
  Avicennia 310
  Azadirachta 316
  Azanza 454
  Azima 456
  Appendices  
I List of Plants reported for only ethnobotanical / traditional uses 463
iii List of some important books, treatises and encyclopaedias referred 466
  Indices  
i Index of botanical names 477
ii Index of bioactive phytoconstituents 484
iii Index of Pharmacological and Biological activity 486
IV Index of regional and other names 492
 
Content To Vol-IV
 
  Baccaurea 1
  Bacopa 4
  Baeckea 24
  Baeolepsis 25
  Balanites 26
  Balanophora 35
  Baliospermum 38
  Bambusa 45
  Banistereopsis 60
  Baphicanthus 62
  Barleria 63
  Barringtonia 83
  Basella 96
  Bauhinia 102
  Beaumontia 135
  Begonia 136
  Beilschmiedia 139
  Belamcanda 140
  Benincasa 142
  Benthamidia 148
  Berberis 150
  Berchemia 186
  Bergenia 188
  Bergia 199
  Berrya 201
  Beta 203
  Betula 209
  Bidens 215
  Biebersteinia 219
  Bignonia 220
  Biophytum 223
  Bischofia 228
  Bixa 231
  Blachia 236
  Blainvillea 239
  Blastania 241
  Blatus 242
  Blechnum 243
  Blepharis 246
  Blepharispermum 250
  Blepharistemma 252
  Blighia 253
  Blumea 256
  Boehmeria 275
  Boenninghausenia 281
  Boerhavia 285
  Bolbitis 317
  Bolusanthus 318
  Bombax 319
  Borago 332
  Borassus 333
  Borreria 340
  Bosia 345
  Boswellia 346
  Bothriochloa 363
  Botrychium 366
  Bougainvillea 368
  Brassaiopsis 376
  Brassica 378
  Breynia 409
  Bridelia 414
  Bromus 424
  Broussonetia 427
  Brownea 429
  Brucea 431
  Bruguiera 435
  Brunfelsia 439
  Buchanania 440
  Buddleja 452
  Bulbophyllum 460
  Bulbostylis 464
  Bunium 465
  Bupleurum 468
  Bursera 475
  Butea 479
  Buxus 510
  Byttneria 512
  Appendices  
I List of Plants reported for only ethnobotanical / traditional uses 517
II List of Plants not included due to change in botanical nomenclature 523
iii List of some important books, treatises and encyclopaedias referred 524
  Indices  
i Index of botanical names 535
ii Index of bioactive phytoconstituents 549
iii Index of Pharmacological and Biological activity 550
IV Index of regional and other names 558
  Plant Genera Included in Earlier Volumes  
i List of Plant Genera vol-1 573
II List of Plant Genera Vol-2 575
III List of Plant Genera vol-3 577
 
Content To Vol-V
 
  Cacalia 1
  Caccinia 3
  Cactus 6
  Cadaba 7
  Caesalpinia 12
  Caesulia 55
  Cajanus 61
  Calamagrostis 88
  Calamus 90
  Calanthe 96
  Calendula 99
  Calliandra 107
  Callicarpa 110
  Calligonum 120
  Callistemon 122
  Callistephus 131
  Callitries 132
  Calophyllum 134
  Calotropis 157
  Caltha 217
  Calycopteris 220
  Calystegia 225
  Camellia 226
  Campsis 273
  Campylotropis 275
  Cananga 276
  Canarium 279
  Canavalia 286
  Canna 296
  Cannabis 301
  Canscora 360
  Cansjera 374
  Canthium 375
  Capillipedium 384
  Capparis 387
  Capsella 419
  Capsicum 422
  Caragona 458
  Carallia 460
  Caralluma 462
  Cardiospermum 468
  Carduus 483
  Carex 485
  Careya 489
  Carica 500
  Carissa 534
  Carmona 552
  Carpesium 556
  Carpinus 558
  Carthamus 559
  Carum 575
  Carvia 590
  Caryopteris 594
  Caryota 595
  Casearia 601
  Casimiroa 614
  Cassia 617
  Cassine 781
  Cassiope 786
  Cassytha 787
  Castanea 792
  Castanopsis 795
  Castanospermum 800
  Casusarina 802
  Catha 809
  Catharanthus 813
  Catimbium 860
  Catunaregam 863
  Cautleya 876
  Cayratia 878
  Cedrus 884
  Ceiba 908
  Celastrus 914
  Celosia. 937
  Celtis 950
  Cenchrus 956
  Centaurea 962
  Centella 965
  Centipeda 1005
  Centratherum 1009
  Centrosema 1022
  Cephaelis 1023
  Cephalostachyum 1029
  Cephalotaxus 1030
  Cerastium 1033
  Ceratonia 1035
  Ceratophyllum 1037
  Cerotopteris 1039
  Cerbera 1041
  Cereus 1048
  Ceriops 1049
  Ceropegia 1054
  Ceropteris 1058
  Cestrum 1059
  Appendices  
I. List of plants reported for only ethnobotanicalltraditional uses 1071
II. List of plants not included in the volume due to change in botanical nomenclature 1078
III. List of some important books, treatises and encyclopedias referred 1079
  Indices  
I. Index of botanical names 1093
II. Index of bioactive phytoconstituents 1107
III. Index of pharmacological and biological activity 1110
IV. Index of regional and other names 1122
 
Contents to Vol-VI
 
  Chaerophyllurri 1
  Chamaecyparis 5
  Chassalia 10
  Cheilanthes 12
  Cheiranthus 18
  Chelidonium 22
  Chenopodium 32
  Chesneya 72
  Chionachne 73
  Chionanthus 75
  Chirita 78
  Chisocheton 80
  Chloris 82
  Chlorophytum 87
  Chloroxylon 97
  Choerospondias 105
  Chonemorpha 107
  Christella 113
  Christi sonia 116
  Chromolaena 117
  Chrozophora 128
  Chrysanthemum 133
  Chrysobalanus 161
  Chrysophyllum 163
  Chrysopogon 165
  Chrysosplenium 169
  Chukrasia 170
  Cicca 175
  Cicer 178
  Cicerbita 237
  Cichorium 239
  Cimicifuga 258
  Cinchona 264
  Cinnamomum 286
  Cipadessa 373
  Cirsium 377
  Cissampelos 384
  Cissus 408
  Cistanche 436
  Citharexylum 439
  Citrullus 441
  Citrus 471
  Appendices  
I. List of plants reported for only ethnobotanicalltraditional uses 647
II. List of plants not included in the volume due to change in botanical nomenclature 652
III. List of some important books, treatises and encyclopedias referred 653
  Indices  
I. Index of botanical names 669
II. Index of bioactive phytoconstituents 678
ill. Index of pharmacological and biological activity 680
IV. Index of regional and other names 686
 
Contents To Vol-VII
 
  Clausena 1
  Cleistanthus 23
  Clematis 38
  Cleome 55
  Clerodendrum 89
  Cleyera 162
  Clinogyne 163
  Clinopodium 165
  Clitoria 171
  Cnidium 190
  Coccinia 194
  Coccoloba 219
  Cocculus 221
  Cochlospermurn 244
  Cocos 251
  Codiaeum 292
  Codiocarpus 296
  Codonopsis 297
  Coelogyne 301
  Coffea 308
  Coix 332
  Colchicum 338
  Coldenia 348
  Colebrookia 351
  Coleus 357
  Colocasia 390
  Colophospermum 407
  Colquhounia 409
  Colubrina 411
  Colvillea 415
  Combretum 416
  Commelina 424
  Commiphora 436
  Conium 502
  Connarus 508
  Consolida 511
  Convallaria 513
  Convolvulus 515
  Conyza 539
  Coptis 547
  Corallocarpus 554
  Corallodiscus 558
  Corchorus 559
  Cordia 585
  Coreopsis 602
  Coriandrum 605
  Coriaria 637
  Comus 639
  Coronopus 642
  Cortaderia 647
  Corydalis 648
  Corylopsis 662
  Corylus 663
  Corypha 671
  Coscinium 673
  Cosmos 682
  Costus 686
  Cotinus 722
  Cotoneaster 725
  Cotula 732
  Couroupita 735
  Cousonia 739
  Appendices  
I. List of plants reported for only ethnobotanical/ traditional uses 743
II. List of plants not included in the volume due to change in botanical nomenclature 753
III List of some important books, treatises and encyclopedias referred 754
  Indices  
I. Index of botanical names 769
II Index of bioactive phytoconstituents 780
III Index of pharmacological and biological activity 782
IV. Index of regional and other names 791
 
Contents to Vol-VIII
 
  Crambe 1
  Crassocephalum 3
  Crataegus 6
  Crate va 12
  Cremanthodium 37
  Crepis 39
  Crescentia 40
  Cressa 44
  Crinum 49
  Crocus 64
  Crossandra 80
  Crotalaria 82
  Croton 143
  Crypteronia 172
  Cryptocarya 173
  Cryptocoryne 177
  Cryptolepis 180
  Cryptomeria 192
  Cryptostegia 204
  Cucumis 209
  Cucurbita 229
  Cudrania 248
  Cullenia 250
  Cuminum 251
  Cunninghamia 272
  Cuphea 275
  Cupressus 277
  Curculigo 289
  Curcuma 307
  Cuscuta 439
  Cyamopsis 460
  Cyananthus 478
  Cyanotis 479
  Cyathea 483
  Cyathocline 488
  Cyathostemma 494
  Cyathula 496
  Cycas 500
  Cyclea 508
  Cydonia 516
  Cylista 519
  Cymbidium 521
  Cymbopogon 524
  Cynanchum 605
  Cynara 610
  Cynodon 615
  Cynoglossum 639
  Cynometra 647
  Cyperus 649
  Cyphomandra 689
  Cypripedium 693
  Cyrtococcum 694
  Cyrtomium 695
  Cytisus 697
  Contents To Vol-IX  
  Dacty liandra 1
  Dactylis 2
  Dactyloctenium 8
  Dactylorhiza 10
  Daernia 13
  Daemonorops 22
  Dahlia 24
  Dalbergia 29
  Danthonia 70
  Daphne 71
  Daphniphyllum 79
  Datisca 81
  Datura 84
  Daucus 153
  Debregeasia 191
  Decalepis 194
  Decaschistia 201
  Deeringia 202
  Delonix 204
  Delphinium 218
  Dendrobium 229
  Dendrocalamus 237
  Dendrophthoe 245
  Dentella 254
  Derris 256
  hDescurainia 311
  Desmodium 313
  Desmos 358
  Desmostachya 361
  Deutzia 365
  Dianthus 368
  Dicentra 372
  Dichanthium 374
  Dichapetalum 376
  Dichroa 378
  Dichrocephala 381
  Dichrostachys 383
  Dicliptera 390
  Dicoma 392
  Dicranopteris 394
  Dictamnus 396
  Didymocarpus 399
  Dieffenbachia 408
  Digera 411
  Digitalis 416
  Dillenia 432
  Dimeria 449
  Dimorphotheca 451
  Dinochloa 452
  Dioon 454
  Dioscorea 456
  Diospyros 506
  Diplazium 552
  Diploclisia 556
  Diplocyclos 558
  Diploknema 561
  Diplospora 567
  Diploterygium 568
  Dipsacus 569
  Dipteracanthus 572
  Dipteris 574
  Dipterocarpus 575
  Disporum 580
  Docynia 581
  Dodonaea 582
  Dolichandrone 591
  Dolichos 597
  Dombeya 660
  Donax 662
  Dopatrium 663
  Dorema 665
  Doronicum 667
  Dracaena 668
  Dracocephalum 672
  Dregea 675
  Drimia 682
  Drimycarpus 688
  Drosera 689
  Drymaria 694
  Drynaria 699
  Dryopteris 703
  Drypetes 716
  Duabanga 728
  Duboisia 730
  Dubyaea 733
  Dunbaria 734
  Duranta 735
  Durio 739
  Dysolobium 741
  Dysophylla 742
  Dysoxylum 744

Contents Vol X

ForewordV
PrefaceVll
Acknow ledgementsVlll
AbbreviationsXl
IntroductionXVll
Monographs
Ecbolium1
Ecdysanthera7
Echinocarpus9
Echinochloa11
Echinops22
Echium39
Eclipta42
Edgaria102
Edgeworthia103
Ehretia105
Eichhomia116
Elaeagnus125
Elaeis131
Elaeocarpus140
Elatostema158
Eleocharis159
Elephantopus162
Elettaria178
Eleusine203
Eleutherococcus228
Elionurus237
Elsholtzia238
Elytraria254
Embelia259
Emblica316
Emilia432
Encephalartos441
Endospermum444
Engelhardtia446
Enhydra451
Enicostema458
Ensete482
Entada488
Enterolobium499
Epaltes505
Ephedra507
Epilobium543
Epipactis548
Equisetum550
Eragrostis563
Eranthemum571
Eranthis576
Erechtites577
Eremopogon579
Eremurus580
Eria582
Erianthus585
Erigeron589
Erinocarpus601
Eriobotrya603
Eriocaulon610
Erioglossum613
Eriolaena616
Eriophorum620
Eriophyton622
Eruca623
Ervatamia630
Erycibe653
Eryngium657
Erysimum663
Erythrina665
Erythropalum711
Erythroxylum713
Eschscholzia723
Ethulia726
Eucalyptus728
Eulalia822
Eulaliopsis824
Eulophia826
Euodia831
Euonymus843
Eupatorium852
Euphorbia883
Euphoria1022
Euphrasia1026
Eurotia1029
Eurya1030
Euryale1035
Eusteralis1039
Evolvulus1044
Exacum1075
Excoecaria1081
Appendices
1. List of plants reported for only ethnobotanical traditional uses1091
2. List of plants not included in the volume due to change in botanical nomenclature1106
3. List of some important books, treatises and encyclopaedias referred1109
Indices
1. Index of family names including generic names1123
2. Index of botanical names1126
3. Index of bioactive phytoconstituents1141
4. Index of pharmacological and biological activity1144
5. Index of regional and other names1156
Plant Genera Included in Earlier Volumes
1. List of plant genera Vol-l (Abe - AIle)1171
2. List of plant genera Vol-2 (Alli - Ard)1173
3. List of plant genera Vol-3 (Are - Azi)1175
4. List of plant genera Vol-4 (Ba - By)1176
5. List of plant genera Vol-5 (Ca - Ce)1178
6. List of plant genera Vol-6 (Ch - Ci)1181
7. List of plant genera Vol- 7 (Cl - Co)1182
8. List of plant genera Vol-8 (Cr - Cy)1184
9. List of plant genera Vol-9 (Da - Dy)1186

Contents Vol XI

ForewordV
PrefaceVII
AcknowledgementsVIII
AbbreviationsXI
IntroductionXIX
Monographs
Faba1
Fagara10
Fagonia21
Fagopyrum34
Fagraea59
Fagus62
Farsetia67
Feronia69
Ferula92
Festuca133
Ficus147
Filago369
Filicium371
Fimbristylis373
Finlaysonia376
Firmiana380
Fissistigrna383
Fitzroya385
Flacourtia387
Flagellaria411
Flaveria414
Flemingia422
Fleurya438
Flickingeria440
Flindersia446
Floscopa448
Flueggea450
Foeniculum459
Forrestia503
Forsythia506
Fortunella509
Fragaria511
Francoeuria536
Fraxinus538
Freycinetia558
Friesodielsia559
Fritillaria561
Fuchsia571
Fumaria574
Furcraea600
Gagea602
Gaillardia603
Galega605
Galinsoga608
Galium612
Gamolepsis619
Garcinia621
Gardenia699
Gardneria733
Garuga735
Gaultheria743
Geissaspis751
Gelonium752
Gelsemium760
Gentiana764
Gentianella776
Geodorum780
Geophila782
Geranium784
Gerbera800
Geum804
Ginkgo808
Girardinia852
Gisekia857
Givotia860
Gleditsia863
Gleichenia866
Glinus867
Gliricidia879
Globba886
Glochidion891
Gloriosa903
Glossocardia939
Glossogyne944
Glycine947
Glycosmis978
Glycycarpus1002
Glycyrrhiza1003
Gmelina1072
Gnaphalium1107
Gnetum1116
Gnidia1124
Goldfussia1129
Gomphandra1131
Gomphostemrna1133
Gomphrena1137
Gonatanthus1144
Gongronema1146
Goniothalamus1148
Gonostegia1154
Goodyera1156
Gordonia1157
Gossypium1159
Gouania1213
Grangea1216
Grevillea1223
Grewia1228
Griffonia1281
Guaiacum1283
Guazuma1286
Guettarda1293
Guizotia1296
Gymnacranthera1304
Gymnadenia1305
Gymnema1306
Gymnopetalum1358
Gymnosporia1360
Gymnostachyum1371
Gynocardia1372
Gynura1376
Gypsophila1381
Gyrocarpus1385
Appendices
1. List of plants reported for only ethnobotanicall traditional uses1389
2. List of plants not included in the volume due to change in botanical nomenclature1413
3. List of some important books, treatises and1414
Indices
1. Index of family names including generic names1429
2. Index of botanical names1432
3. Index of bioactive phytoconstituents1453
4. Index of pharmacological and biological activity1459
5. Index of regional and other names1473
Plant Genera Included in Earlier Volumes
1. List of plant genera Vol-1 (Abe - AIle)1499
2. List of plant genera Vol-2 (Alli - Ard)1501
3. List of plant genera Vol-3 (Are - Azi)1503
4. List of plant genera Vol-4 (Ba - By)1504
5. List of plant genera Vol-5 (Ca - Ce)1506
6. List of plant genera Vol-6 (Ch - Ci)1509
7. List of plant genera Vol-7 (CI- Co)1510
8. List of plant genera Vol-8 (Cr - Cy)1512
9. List of plant genera Vol-9 (Da - Dy)1514
10. List of plant genera Vol-l0 (Ec - Ex)1516

Contents Vol XII

ForewordV
PrefaceVII
AcknowledgementsVIII
AbbreviationsXI
IntroductionXXI
MonographsPage
Habenaria1
Hackelia9
Haemanthus10
Haematocarpus13
Haematoxylon15
Hakea18
Halenia20
Halerpestes24
Halodule25
Halogeton27
Halophila29
Haloxylon33
Hamelia35
Hamiltonia40
Haplanthodes43
Haplophragma46
Hardwickia49
Harpagophytum55
Harpullia64
Harrisonia66
Hartmannia68
Heckeria70
Hedera72
Hedranthera85
Hedychium88
Hedyotis130
Hedysarum149
Helianthus166
Helicanthes202
Helichrysum204
Helicia212
Heliconia213
Helicteres215
Helinus244
Heliotropium246
Helixanthera285
Helleborus287
Helminthostachys291
Hemarthria297
Hemidesmus299
Hemigraphis357
Hemionitis363
Hemiphragma367
Heptapleurum369
Herac1eum371
Heritiera400
Hernandia406
Herniaria409
Herpetospermum412
Hesperethusa414
Heteropanax420
Heterophragma422
Heteropogon427
Heterostemma433
Hevea435
Hexachlamys446
Heylandia448
Heynea450
Hibiscus452
Hippeastrum560
Hippocratea562
Hippophae565
Hiptage608
Hitchenia615
Hodgsonia616
Hoffmannseggia618
Holarrhena620
Holboellia681
Holigama683
Holmskioldia690
Holoptelea695
Holostemma714
Homalium723
Homalomena725
Homonoia728
Hopea733
Hoppea738
Hordeum741
Homstedtia774
Horsfieldia776
Houttuynia778
Hoya790
Hugonia794
Humboldtia798
Humulus801
Hybanthus823
Hydnocarpus834
Hydrangea851
Hydrastis858
Hydrilla865
Hydrocotyle872
Hydrolea884
Hydrophylax887
Hygrophila888
Hymenaea924
Hymenantherum928
Hymenocallis930
H ymenodictyon933
Hyoscyamus941
Hypecoum964
Hypericum966
Hyphaene1016
Hypochoeris1019
Hypogynium1021
Hypolepis1022
Hypoxis1024
Hyptianthera1026
Hyptis1029
Hyssopus .1059
Appendices
1. List of plants reported for only ethnobotanical/ traditional uses1069
2. List of plants not included in the volume due to change in botanical nomenclature1087
3. List of some important books, treatises and encyclopaedias referred1088
Indices
1. Index of family names including generic names1103
2. Index of botanical names1106
3. Index of bioactive phytoconstituents1121
4. Index of pharmacological and biological activity1126
5. Index of regional and other names1137
Plant Genera Included in Earlier Volumes
1. List of plant genera Vol-1 (Abe - AIle)1153
2. List of plant genera Vol-2 (Alli - Ard)1155
3. List of plant genera Vol-3 (Are - Azi)1157
4. List of plant genera Vol-4 (Ba - By)1158
5. List of plant genera Vol-5 (Ca - Ce)1160
6. List of plant genera Vol-6 (Ch - Ci)1163
7. List of plant genera Vol-7 (CI- Co)1164
8. List of plant genera Vol-8 (Cr - Cy)1166
9. List of plant genera Vol-9 (Da - Dy)1168
10. List of plant genera Vol-10 (Ec - Ex)1170
11. List of plant genera Vol-ll (Fa - Gy)1172

Contents Vol XIII

ForewordV
PrefaceVII
AcknowledgementsVlll
AbbreviationsIX
IntroductionXV
Monographs
Iberis1
Ichnocarpus4
Hex20
Illicium26
Impatiens39
Imperata54
Incarvillea63
Indigofera65
Indoneesiella121
Inga125
Inocarpus126
Intsia127
Inula129
Iphigenia162
Ipomoea165
Iris273
Isachne288
Ischaemum290
Iseilema293
Isodon296
Isoetes299
Isonandra301
Itea302
Ixora304
Jacaranda331
Jacobinia336
Jacquemontia338
Jacquinia340
Jaeschkea342
Janakia344
Jasminum347
Jateorhiza401
Jatropha403
Juglans459
Juncus476
Juniperus479
Jurinea512
Justicia517
Kaempferia545
Kalanchoe561
Kallstroernia583
Kandelia585
Kayea588
Kedrostis590
Khaya592
Kickxia598
Kigelia602
Kirganelia610
Kleinhovia619
Klugia621
Knema622
Knoxia629
Kochia631
Koeleria636
Koelpinia638
Koelreuteria640
Kopsia641
Krascheninnikovia645
Kydia647
Kyllinga652
Appendices
1. List of plants reported for only ethnobotanical / traditional uses663
2. List of plants not included in the volume due to change in botanical nomenclature677
3. List of some important books, treatises and encyclopedias referred678
Indices
1. Index of family names including generic names693
2. Index of botanical names695
3. Index of bioactive constituents709
4. Index of pharmacological and biological activity710
5. Index of regional and other names719
Plant Genera Included in Earlier Volumes
1. List of Plant Genera Vol-l (Abe - AIle)739
2. List of Plant Genera Vol-2 (Alli - Ard)741
3. List of Plant Genera Vol-3 (Are - Azi)743
4. List of Plant Genera Vol-4 (Ba - By)744
5. List of Plant Genera Vol-5 (Ca - Ce)746
6. List of Plant Genera Vol-6 (Ch - Ci)749
7. List of Plant Genera Vol-7 (Cl- Co)750
8. List of Plant Genera Vol-8 (Cr - Cy)752
9. List of Plant Genera Vol-9 (Da - Dy)754
10. List of Plant Genera Vol-l 0 (Ec - Ex)757
11. List of Plant Genera Vol-ll (Fa - Gy)759
12. List of Plant Genera Vol-12 (Ha - Hy)762

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Volume XIII



Reviews on Indian Medicinal Plants (Set of 13 Volumes)

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Foreword

Emerging and reemerging infections and spread of deadly drug-resistant strains of organisms are posing a challenge to the Global Public Health in terms of their treatment. The solution perhaps lies in the Indigenous Systems of medicine, and the plant- based drugs which could provide both concept of therapy, as well as therapeutic agent to complement modern medicine especially in management of life-style diseases and communicable diseases. Medicinal plants products could also prove useful in reducing / minimize the adverse effects of various chemotherapeutic agents as well as in prolonging longevity and attaining positive health.

The consequent global interest in medicinal potential of plant during the last few decades is quite logical. Scientific research activities have been focused not only on known but also on numerous lesser known medicinal plants mentioned in the ancient texts. Enormous amount of scientific data on various aspects has been generated during the period.

In this backdrop, the Council initiated the development of databases of multidisciplinary scientific information on medicinal plants in form of Monograph series. The focus has been on pharmacognostic, photochemical, Pharmacological, clinical, toxicological studies and Ayurvedic description. Additional information on regional names, habit and habit uses ascribed, ethno botanical studies, etc. has also been included. The first volume in this series deal with over 200 plant species. The next three volumes covering over 600 plant species are also being published simultaneously. The Monographs may be of great relevance and importance in developing new herbal drugs for health care, establishing correlation ship between the uses/ claims made in Indigenous systems of Medicine, particularly Ayurveda, and understanding the scientific basis of their action. The compiled information may also be of great help in defending issues related to Intellectual Property Rights and patents on Indian medicinal plants at global level. The compilation is also intended to serve as an inventory of the Indian medicinal plants, which have been investigated. The leads could e further followed up for in-depth research.

I Trust that this initiative of the Council and the resulting series of the publication arising there from will be of immense help to researchers, academicians, scientific bodies, policy makers, regulatory authorities, drug industry, physicians of different systems of medicine and others interested in the area of medicinal plants.

I deeply appreciate the efforts of the Chairman, and the members of the Scientific Advisory Group and the Technical Review committee. The contribution made by late Professor P.K. Das needs special mention. His untimely and sad demise took him away from us before these volumes could appear in print.

It is hoped this publication would help in meeting the unmet need for new and better drugs.

 

Preface

Medicinal plants belong to the earliest known health care products that have been used by the mankind. Over three-quarters of the world population rely on the use of traditional medicines for their primary health care needs. The medicinal plants are not only major components of the many formulations used in Indigenous Systems o Medicines but also of a large number of drugs in Allopathic. In India, with one of the oldest ethno botanical tradition in the world, medicinal plants are the backbone of all major systems of medicine.

Indian Council of Medical Research has been supporting various research programmers in the area of medicinal plants and Indigenous systems of Medicine since 1929. In the recent past, under the leadership of Dr. G.V. Satyavati, the then Sr. Deputy Director general and later director General, the ICMR published a compilation of data on scientific work conducted in India on medicinal plants in two volumes of Monograph in 1976 and 1987, respectively, covering a total of about 900 plant species ( alphabet A to P as per their botanical names). There have been several other publications in the last few decades. The coverage of plant in these and other publications was selective or focused primarily on aspects like agronomy, botany, cultivation and chemistry. There was however, less focus on pharmacological, clinical, toxicological and drug development aspects.

In the interregnum there has been an information explosion on medicinal plants. A vast amount of information is available on published and unpublished scientific data spanning various related specialties. systematic compilation of this information became essential for its fruitful management and utilization. In the changed present day scenario this compilation needed to be viewed with a contemporary perspective which could lend support to IPR issues, priorities setting in R&D, credence to plant based drugs, global acceptance, boost of trade, and exploitation of untapped indigenous resources for better health care. The international agencies like WHO too, have advocated for development of databases which could help in harnessing full potential of medicinal plants and also help in protecting country’s ethno medicinal and biological wealth.

The present series of monographs is an effort by ICMR in this direction.

Extensive search has been made for relevant literature from primary, secondary and tertiary sources, as well as by contacting various universities, medical institutions and individual researchers involved in activities related to medicinal plants. The monograph on each plant includes regional names, habit and habitat, Ayurvedic description (wherever available), Sanskrit synonyms, uses ascribed, ethno botanical studies, the details of botanical, pharmacognostic, chemical, pharmacological/ biological, clinical and toxicological aspects backed by complete references on each aspect of the information cited. Colored photographs of some important medicinal plants have been also included.

The available literature information is so enormous that the total number of 600 plant species with 8400 references under alphabet ‘A’ (as per botanical names) could be covered in 3 volumes. The present publication is first in the series, and covers over 220 plant species (Abe-Alle). The second (Alli-Art) and Third (Are-Azi) volumes, have also been prepared and are being published simultaneously.

It is hoped that the series of publication may be useful for researchers, scientific bodies, herbal drug industry and other organizations. The policy planners, regulatory and health authorities may also find it equally useful.

 

Introduction

Efforts have been made to compile published research efforts on the taxa found in India whether indigenous or introduced. The present volume is the first of the series of Reviews on Indian Medicinal Plants comprising 60 plant genera comprising 223 species from Abelmoschus- Allemanda

The Monographs cover largely the studies on Indian medicinal plants conducted by scientists in Indian institutions and published in national and international journals. At places work done by Indian scientists in collaboration with foreign laboratories or carried out exclusively in foreign laboratories has also been covered. Citations of foreign scientists and the work carried out abroad have been made wherever it was found relevant to the text. Plants imported in India have not been included. The plants Achras Zapota and Agati species have not been included due to change of nomenclature status of the plant species of Manilkara Zapota and Sesbania species, respectively.

The sources of information included survey of published literature including primary, secondary and tertiary sources, besides the literature made available by various scientists, academicians, medical colleges, research institutions and universities involved in activities related to medicinal plants / Indices.

General Information

This section deals with the information mainly related to nomenclature, habit and habitat, regional names and the claims about the medicinal value of the plant species. To have an ideal of the possible medicinal potential of the plants, an attempt has been made not only to include information from the Ayurvedic literature and Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India but also from the beliefs and practices prevalent in India on the basis f folk lore or empirical / traditional uses of certain plants, as reported in various well reputed compendia and ethno botanical surveys conducted. The details provided under the following sub-heads are mentioned as under:

Botanical Nomenclature

The plant genera and species are arranged by their botanical names in alphabetical order. The nomenclature of many plants has undergone revision during the last few decades. The names of the plant given in the cited references have been updated as far as possible to provide currently accepted names. In case of change of name, the obsolete names have been given as synonyms in the following order: the currently accepted name is followed by the corresponding names given in Hooker’s flora of British India or other subsequent relevant literature in addition to Indian flora and finally by the title name of the plant given in the reference cited, if is different from the earlier mentioned names. Further to this, in cases where the currently accepted binomial nomenclature starts with alphabets other than “A” such names have been provided in the footnote for the convenience of the readers. Similarly, the names of the families have been given according to the currently accepted pattern.

Habit and Habitat

A brief account of habit and habitat for each species has been also included in the Monograph.

Regional and Other Names

For most of the regional names of the plant included in this volume, information has been compiled mainly from Chopra et al. (1956, 1958), Nandkarni (1954) as well as Wealth of India (1985). In cases where names of the plants in various languages were not available, either only English names or local names as mentioned in various ethno botanical reports have been included.

Ayurvedic description

The Sequences of Ayurvedic description given in these volumes is the main Sanskrit name, its Synonyms, the Ayurvedic properties i.e. Rasa, Guna, virya, Vipaka, the basis of Ayurvedic pharmacology, actions and uses is given according to their importance. Diacritical marks have been used for correct pronunciation and to have correct meaning of these words.

Based on the above aspects Ayurvedic details of some of the allied species having similar properties are given. kA word of caution is very essential as some of the allied botanical species may not have similar actions rather allied species may be highly poisonous, for example Aconitum palmatum and A. hetero phylum are not poisonous whereas all other species of Aconitum are poisonous.

Therapeutic Uses Mentioned in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia

The actions and therapeutic uses of the plant drugs as reported in the three volumes of the official publication-Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, have been mentioned.

Properties and Uses Ascribed

The main sources of the information about the uses ascribed to various plant species under this head, are the publications by Chopra et al. (1956, 1958), Nadkarni (1954), and Wealth of India (1985). Ethno botanical Studies

These cover beliefs and practices prevalent in India as per published reports of various ethno botanical surveys. In some cases the uses of plant when employed in combination with other plant(s) have also been mentioned. However, no details about the formulation, method of preparation or dosage have been given.

Pharmacognostic Studies

Pharmacognosy part mainly includes important macro-and microscopic characters of various parts of the plant viz., leaves flowers, fruits, seeds, wood, bark, rhizome, root, lattices, gum, resin, oil fats, and waxes and fluorescence analysis. At places, wherever available. At places, wherever available, the relevant information and comparative features of the adulterants and substitutes have also been given. Pharmacognostic studies on medicinal plants which now form a part of chapters in standard books on pharmacognosy have not been included.

Chemical Studies

A through survey of the chemical studies done on the plants has been attempted, taking into account even those references where the plant has been mentioned in general photochemical screaming for the presence or absence of a particular group of chemical constituents. Thus the reader may find some insignificant journals also being cited.

An attempt has been made to relate the pharmacological / biological activity with the chemical constituents of the plant or the part of the plant used in Indian Systems of Medicine. In such an attempt, the chemical studies done on a particular plant have been described in the order of the occurrence of the chemical constituents in different parts of the plant such as whole plant, aerial parts, stem, stem bark, leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds, root rhizome, root bark. This has been done purposely to meaningfully correlate the biological activity exhibited by a medicinal plant or a particular part thereof under description with the chemical constituent(s) occurring in the plant or the particular part. Thus one may encounter a chemical constituent being repeated at several places in the text under different parts of the plant.

The reader may find this approach unacceptable if one is looking from a pure chemical review point view. A more acceptable write-up under the chemical studies would have been to describe the chemical constituents according to the chemical nature of the components i.e., alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, fatty acids etc. But this approach would have defeated the purpose of correlating the activity of a part of the plant used in Indigenous Systems of Medicine with the constituents occurring in that respective part of the plant.

Under the chemical studies, the generic names of phytoconstituents given by the authors have been largely retained in the text. At places if the compound under generic name has been fully characterized, a complete chemical name has been mentioned to give an idea of the chemical structure, as the text does not contain the graphical representation of chemical structures

The structural drawings of the chemical constitutions described are not purposely included in the text; the structures are already given in the publications cited under references or can be seen from other standard publications like Compendium on Indian Medicinal Plants (CSIR), Merck Index (Merck & Co., New Jersey ), etc.

Under the chemical write-up coverage is also given to component like proteins, carbohydrates, fats, fibers, nitrogen contents, ash or even mention is made of inorganic mineral components. This has been done taking into view the nutritional value of the plant. At places the reader may also find inclusion of chemical analytical methods for the estimation of particular constituent. Tissue culture studies carried out to enhance the parentage of chemical constituent have also been included at place under chemical studies. In cases where a plant has been extensively worked out chemically and a very large number of constituent plant has been extensively worked out chemically and a very large number of constituents have been reported the text under the sub-title chemical studies has been condensed by summarizing the constituents in tabular forms. Classifying the constituents according to their photochemical groups.

Pharmacological and Biological studies

This heading incorporates biological activities as reported in experimental animals, helminthes, microbes including bacteria, fungi, viruses and infecting parasites. Besides systemic pharmacology, wherever required, effects on experimental disease models have been described. In selected cases, effects on cattle, poultry and agriculture have been included in the text. Most of the pharmacological actions reported are on crude extracts or active fraction. However, in case of many promising plants, active principles have been identified and studied pharmacologically. In general, the traditional and Ayurvedic uses of the plants are so wide and varied that it was not possible to correlate the pharmacological actions with the uses of the plants. But wherever such correlation exists, the same has been highlighted.

Large number of plants have been screened by Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, for various biological activities and results published in series of papers. But a very limited number of plants have been reported to have confirmed activity in their fractionated extracts. As the effort is to consolidate and cover most of the studies carried out and published, the results of the preliminary biological screening have also been mentioned in the Monographs for the benefit of the readers.

Pharmacological actions of the plants have been described under classified under classified subheads antimicrobial, general pharmacology, cardiovascular system, central nervous system, respiratory system, hypolipidaemic, hepatorprotective, hypoglycaemic, antifertility and wound healing activities etc.

Toxicity in animals is mostly limited to determination of LD 50. However, in case of potential therapeutic agents more detailed toxicology has been studied and the same has been included in the text. Toxicity details in cattle and poultry, wherever available, have been given. The animal toxicity comes under the head Pharmacological and biological Studies.

 

Contents To The Vol.I

 

  Message IV
  Foreword V
  Preface VII
  Acknowledgement IX
  Abbreviations XI
  Introduction XV
  Monographs  
  Abelmoschus 1
  Abies 11
  Abrus 18
  Abutilon 39
  Acacia 53
  Acalypha 110
  Acampe 122
  Acanthopanax 124
  Acanthospermum 125
  Acanthus 127
  Acer 132
  Achillea 136
  Achyranthes 140
  Aconitum 165
  Acorus 193
  Acrocarpus 223
  Acrocephalus 225
  Acronychia 226
  Acrostichum 228
  actaea 230
  Actiniopteris 232
  Actinodaphne 235
  Adansonia 239
  Adelocarym 243
  Adenanthera 244
  Adenia 249
  Adenocalymma 251
  Adenostemma 255
  Adhatoda 257
  Adiantum 288
  Adina 298
  Adonis 305
  Aegiceras 306
  Aeginetia 308
  Aegle 310
  Aerides 337
  Aerva 338
  Aeschynomene 347
  Aesculus 349
  Aganosma 357
  Agapetes 361
  Agave 362
  Ageratina 375
  Ageratum 376
  Agalia 388
  Agrimonia 399
  Agrostophyllum 403
  Agyneia 405
  Ailanthus 406
  Ainsliaea 419
  Aisandra 422
  Ajuga 426
  Alangium 432
  Albizia 445
  Alcea 481
  Alectra 485
  Aleurites 487
  Alhagi 490
  Alisma 493
  Allemanda 495
  Appendices  
I List of Plants reported for only ethnobotanical / traditional uses 503
II List of some important books, treatises and encyclopaedias referred 506
  Indices  
I Index of botanical names 517
II Index of bioactive phytoconstituents 526
III Index of Pharmacological and Biological activity 528
IV Index of regional and other names 535
 
Content To Vol-II
 
  Allium 1
  Allophylus 90
  Alnus 93
  Alocasia 96
  Aloe 101
  Alphonsea 116
  Alpinia 118
  Alstonia 129
  Alternanthera 150
  Altingia 159
  Alysicarpus 162
  Amaranthus 164
  Amaryllis 193
  Amberboa 194
  Ambroma 196
  Ammannia 205
  Ammi 209
  Amomum 215
  Amorphophallus 221
  Ampelocissus 227
  Anacardium 231
  Anacyclus 247
  Anagallis 251
  Anamirta 259
  Ananas 261
  Anaphalis 268
  Ancistrocladus 275
  Andrachne 279
  Andrographic 283
  androsace 307
  Anemone 309
  Anethum 314
  Angelica 328
  Angelonia 337
  Anisochilus 339
  Anisomeles 343
  Annona 353
  Anodendron 371
  Anogeissus 373
  Anthemis 384
  Anthocephalus 387
  Anthriscus 393
  Antiaris 395
  Anticharis 397
  Antidesma 398
  Antigonon 402
  Apama 404
  Aphanamixis 408
  Apium 418
  Aporusa 429
  Aquilaria 433
  Arachis 436
  Araucaria 449
  Arctium 453
  Ardisia 456
  Appendices  
I List of Plants reported for only ethnobotanical / traditional uses 467
II List of Plants not included due to change in botanical nomenclature 471
iii List of some important books, treatises and encyclopaedias referred 473
  Indices  
i Index of botanical names 483
ii Index of bioactive phytoconstituents 492
iii Index of Pharmacological and Biological activity 494
IV Index of regional and other names 501
 
Content To Vol-III
 
  Areca 1
  Argemone 30
  Argyreia 61
  Ariopsis 74
  Arisaema 75
  Aristolochia 80
  Arnebia 103
  Artabotrys 114
  Artemisia 123
  Arthromeris 180
  Artocarpus 182
  Arundina 201
  Arundo 202
  Asclepias 206
  Asparagus 212
  Asphodelus 252
  Aspidopterys 265
  Asplenium 258
  Aster 260
  Astilbe 264
  Astragulus 266
  Asystasia 273
  Atalantia 276
  Athyrium 285
  Atriplex 286
  Atropa 287
  Atylosia 296
  Avena 302
  Averrhoa 305
  Avicennia 310
  Azadirachta 316
  Azanza 454
  Azima 456
  Appendices  
I List of Plants reported for only ethnobotanical / traditional uses 463
iii List of some important books, treatises and encyclopaedias referred 466
  Indices  
i Index of botanical names 477
ii Index of bioactive phytoconstituents 484
iii Index of Pharmacological and Biological activity 486
IV Index of regional and other names 492
 
Content To Vol-IV
 
  Baccaurea 1
  Bacopa 4
  Baeckea 24
  Baeolepsis 25
  Balanites 26
  Balanophora 35
  Baliospermum 38
  Bambusa 45
  Banistereopsis 60
  Baphicanthus 62
  Barleria 63
  Barringtonia 83
  Basella 96
  Bauhinia 102
  Beaumontia 135
  Begonia 136
  Beilschmiedia 139
  Belamcanda 140
  Benincasa 142
  Benthamidia 148
  Berberis 150
  Berchemia 186
  Bergenia 188
  Bergia 199
  Berrya 201
  Beta 203
  Betula 209
  Bidens 215
  Biebersteinia 219
  Bignonia 220
  Biophytum 223
  Bischofia 228
  Bixa 231
  Blachia 236
  Blainvillea 239
  Blastania 241
  Blatus 242
  Blechnum 243
  Blepharis 246
  Blepharispermum 250
  Blepharistemma 252
  Blighia 253
  Blumea 256
  Boehmeria 275
  Boenninghausenia 281
  Boerhavia 285
  Bolbitis 317
  Bolusanthus 318
  Bombax 319
  Borago 332
  Borassus 333
  Borreria 340
  Bosia 345
  Boswellia 346
  Bothriochloa 363
  Botrychium 366
  Bougainvillea 368
  Brassaiopsis 376
  Brassica 378
  Breynia 409
  Bridelia 414
  Bromus 424
  Broussonetia 427
  Brownea 429
  Brucea 431
  Bruguiera 435
  Brunfelsia 439
  Buchanania 440
  Buddleja 452
  Bulbophyllum 460
  Bulbostylis 464
  Bunium 465
  Bupleurum 468
  Bursera 475
  Butea 479
  Buxus 510
  Byttneria 512
  Appendices  
I List of Plants reported for only ethnobotanical / traditional uses 517
II List of Plants not included due to change in botanical nomenclature 523
iii List of some important books, treatises and encyclopaedias referred 524
  Indices  
i Index of botanical names 535
ii Index of bioactive phytoconstituents 549
iii Index of Pharmacological and Biological activity 550
IV Index of regional and other names 558
  Plant Genera Included in Earlier Volumes  
i List of Plant Genera vol-1 573
II List of Plant Genera Vol-2 575
III List of Plant Genera vol-3 577
 
Content To Vol-V
 
  Cacalia 1
  Caccinia 3
  Cactus 6
  Cadaba 7
  Caesalpinia 12
  Caesulia 55
  Cajanus 61
  Calamagrostis 88
  Calamus 90
  Calanthe 96
  Calendula 99
  Calliandra 107
  Callicarpa 110
  Calligonum 120
  Callistemon 122
  Callistephus 131
  Callitries 132
  Calophyllum 134
  Calotropis 157
  Caltha 217
  Calycopteris 220
  Calystegia 225
  Camellia 226
  Campsis 273
  Campylotropis 275
  Cananga 276
  Canarium 279
  Canavalia 286
  Canna 296
  Cannabis 301
  Canscora 360
  Cansjera 374
  Canthium 375
  Capillipedium 384
  Capparis 387
  Capsella 419
  Capsicum 422
  Caragona 458
  Carallia 460
  Caralluma 462
  Cardiospermum 468
  Carduus 483
  Carex 485
  Careya 489
  Carica 500
  Carissa 534
  Carmona 552
  Carpesium 556
  Carpinus 558
  Carthamus 559
  Carum 575
  Carvia 590
  Caryopteris 594
  Caryota 595
  Casearia 601
  Casimiroa 614
  Cassia 617
  Cassine 781
  Cassiope 786
  Cassytha 787
  Castanea 792
  Castanopsis 795
  Castanospermum 800
  Casusarina 802
  Catha 809
  Catharanthus 813
  Catimbium 860
  Catunaregam 863
  Cautleya 876
  Cayratia 878
  Cedrus 884
  Ceiba 908
  Celastrus 914
  Celosia. 937
  Celtis 950
  Cenchrus 956
  Centaurea 962
  Centella 965
  Centipeda 1005
  Centratherum 1009
  Centrosema 1022
  Cephaelis 1023
  Cephalostachyum 1029
  Cephalotaxus 1030
  Cerastium 1033
  Ceratonia 1035
  Ceratophyllum 1037
  Cerotopteris 1039
  Cerbera 1041
  Cereus 1048
  Ceriops 1049
  Ceropegia 1054
  Ceropteris 1058
  Cestrum 1059
  Appendices  
I. List of plants reported for only ethnobotanicalltraditional uses 1071
II. List of plants not included in the volume due to change in botanical nomenclature 1078
III. List of some important books, treatises and encyclopedias referred 1079
  Indices  
I. Index of botanical names 1093
II. Index of bioactive phytoconstituents 1107
III. Index of pharmacological and biological activity 1110
IV. Index of regional and other names 1122
 
Contents to Vol-VI
 
  Chaerophyllurri 1
  Chamaecyparis 5
  Chassalia 10
  Cheilanthes 12
  Cheiranthus 18
  Chelidonium 22
  Chenopodium 32
  Chesneya 72
  Chionachne 73
  Chionanthus 75
  Chirita 78
  Chisocheton 80
  Chloris 82
  Chlorophytum 87
  Chloroxylon 97
  Choerospondias 105
  Chonemorpha 107
  Christella 113
  Christi sonia 116
  Chromolaena 117
  Chrozophora 128
  Chrysanthemum 133
  Chrysobalanus 161
  Chrysophyllum 163
  Chrysopogon 165
  Chrysosplenium 169
  Chukrasia 170
  Cicca 175
  Cicer 178
  Cicerbita 237
  Cichorium 239
  Cimicifuga 258
  Cinchona 264
  Cinnamomum 286
  Cipadessa 373
  Cirsium 377
  Cissampelos 384
  Cissus 408
  Cistanche 436
  Citharexylum 439
  Citrullus 441
  Citrus 471
  Appendices  
I. List of plants reported for only ethnobotanicalltraditional uses 647
II. List of plants not included in the volume due to change in botanical nomenclature 652
III. List of some important books, treatises and encyclopedias referred 653
  Indices  
I. Index of botanical names 669
II. Index of bioactive phytoconstituents 678
ill. Index of pharmacological and biological activity 680
IV. Index of regional and other names 686
 
Contents To Vol-VII
 
  Clausena 1
  Cleistanthus 23
  Clematis 38
  Cleome 55
  Clerodendrum 89
  Cleyera 162
  Clinogyne 163
  Clinopodium 165
  Clitoria 171
  Cnidium 190
  Coccinia 194
  Coccoloba 219
  Cocculus 221
  Cochlospermurn 244
  Cocos 251
  Codiaeum 292
  Codiocarpus 296
  Codonopsis 297
  Coelogyne 301
  Coffea 308
  Coix 332
  Colchicum 338
  Coldenia 348
  Colebrookia 351
  Coleus 357
  Colocasia 390
  Colophospermum 407
  Colquhounia 409
  Colubrina 411
  Colvillea 415
  Combretum 416
  Commelina 424
  Commiphora 436
  Conium 502
  Connarus 508
  Consolida 511
  Convallaria 513
  Convolvulus 515
  Conyza 539
  Coptis 547
  Corallocarpus 554
  Corallodiscus 558
  Corchorus 559
  Cordia 585
  Coreopsis 602
  Coriandrum 605
  Coriaria 637
  Comus 639
  Coronopus 642
  Cortaderia 647
  Corydalis 648
  Corylopsis 662
  Corylus 663
  Corypha 671
  Coscinium 673
  Cosmos 682
  Costus 686
  Cotinus 722
  Cotoneaster 725
  Cotula 732
  Couroupita 735
  Cousonia 739
  Appendices  
I. List of plants reported for only ethnobotanical/ traditional uses 743
II. List of plants not included in the volume due to change in botanical nomenclature 753
III List of some important books, treatises and encyclopedias referred 754
  Indices  
I. Index of botanical names 769
II Index of bioactive phytoconstituents 780
III Index of pharmacological and biological activity 782
IV. Index of regional and other names 791
 
Contents to Vol-VIII
 
  Crambe 1
  Crassocephalum 3
  Crataegus 6
  Crate va 12
  Cremanthodium 37
  Crepis 39
  Crescentia 40
  Cressa 44
  Crinum 49
  Crocus 64
  Crossandra 80
  Crotalaria 82
  Croton 143
  Crypteronia 172
  Cryptocarya 173
  Cryptocoryne 177
  Cryptolepis 180
  Cryptomeria 192
  Cryptostegia 204
  Cucumis 209
  Cucurbita 229
  Cudrania 248
  Cullenia 250
  Cuminum 251
  Cunninghamia 272
  Cuphea 275
  Cupressus 277
  Curculigo 289
  Curcuma 307
  Cuscuta 439
  Cyamopsis 460
  Cyananthus 478
  Cyanotis 479
  Cyathea 483
  Cyathocline 488
  Cyathostemma 494
  Cyathula 496
  Cycas 500
  Cyclea 508
  Cydonia 516
  Cylista 519
  Cymbidium 521
  Cymbopogon 524
  Cynanchum 605
  Cynara 610
  Cynodon 615
  Cynoglossum 639
  Cynometra 647
  Cyperus 649
  Cyphomandra 689
  Cypripedium 693
  Cyrtococcum 694
  Cyrtomium 695
  Cytisus 697
  Contents To Vol-IX  
  Dacty liandra 1
  Dactylis 2
  Dactyloctenium 8
  Dactylorhiza 10
  Daernia 13
  Daemonorops 22
  Dahlia 24
  Dalbergia 29
  Danthonia 70
  Daphne 71
  Daphniphyllum 79
  Datisca 81
  Datura 84
  Daucus 153
  Debregeasia 191
  Decalepis 194
  Decaschistia 201
  Deeringia 202
  Delonix 204
  Delphinium 218
  Dendrobium 229
  Dendrocalamus 237
  Dendrophthoe 245
  Dentella 254
  Derris 256
  hDescurainia 311
  Desmodium 313
  Desmos 358
  Desmostachya 361
  Deutzia 365
  Dianthus 368
  Dicentra 372
  Dichanthium 374
  Dichapetalum 376
  Dichroa 378
  Dichrocephala 381
  Dichrostachys 383
  Dicliptera 390
  Dicoma 392
  Dicranopteris 394
  Dictamnus 396
  Didymocarpus 399
  Dieffenbachia 408
  Digera 411
  Digitalis 416
  Dillenia 432
  Dimeria 449
  Dimorphotheca 451
  Dinochloa 452
  Dioon 454
  Dioscorea 456
  Diospyros 506
  Diplazium 552
  Diploclisia 556
  Diplocyclos 558
  Diploknema 561
  Diplospora 567
  Diploterygium 568
  Dipsacus 569
  Dipteracanthus 572
  Dipteris 574
  Dipterocarpus 575
  Disporum 580
  Docynia 581
  Dodonaea 582
  Dolichandrone 591
  Dolichos 597
  Dombeya 660
  Donax 662
  Dopatrium 663
  Dorema 665
  Doronicum 667
  Dracaena 668
  Dracocephalum 672
  Dregea 675
  Drimia 682
  Drimycarpus 688
  Drosera 689
  Drymaria 694
  Drynaria 699
  Dryopteris 703
  Drypetes 716
  Duabanga 728
  Duboisia 730
  Dubyaea 733
  Dunbaria 734
  Duranta 735
  Durio 739
  Dysolobium 741
  Dysophylla 742
  Dysoxylum 744

Contents Vol X

ForewordV
PrefaceVll
Acknow ledgementsVlll
AbbreviationsXl
IntroductionXVll
Monographs
Ecbolium1
Ecdysanthera7
Echinocarpus9
Echinochloa11
Echinops22
Echium39
Eclipta42
Edgaria102
Edgeworthia103
Ehretia105
Eichhomia116
Elaeagnus125
Elaeis131
Elaeocarpus140
Elatostema158
Eleocharis159
Elephantopus162
Elettaria178
Eleusine203
Eleutherococcus228
Elionurus237
Elsholtzia238
Elytraria254
Embelia259
Emblica316
Emilia432
Encephalartos441
Endospermum444
Engelhardtia446
Enhydra451
Enicostema458
Ensete482
Entada488
Enterolobium499
Epaltes505
Ephedra507
Epilobium543
Epipactis548
Equisetum550
Eragrostis563
Eranthemum571
Eranthis576
Erechtites577
Eremopogon579
Eremurus580
Eria582
Erianthus585
Erigeron589
Erinocarpus601
Eriobotrya603
Eriocaulon610
Erioglossum613
Eriolaena616
Eriophorum620
Eriophyton622
Eruca623
Ervatamia630
Erycibe653
Eryngium657
Erysimum663
Erythrina665
Erythropalum711
Erythroxylum713
Eschscholzia723
Ethulia726
Eucalyptus728
Eulalia822
Eulaliopsis824
Eulophia826
Euodia831
Euonymus843
Eupatorium852
Euphorbia883
Euphoria1022
Euphrasia1026
Eurotia1029
Eurya1030
Euryale1035
Eusteralis1039
Evolvulus1044
Exacum1075
Excoecaria1081
Appendices
1. List of plants reported for only ethnobotanical traditional uses1091
2. List of plants not included in the volume due to change in botanical nomenclature1106
3. List of some important books, treatises and encyclopaedias referred1109
Indices
1. Index of family names including generic names1123
2. Index of botanical names1126
3. Index of bioactive phytoconstituents1141
4. Index of pharmacological and biological activity1144
5. Index of regional and other names1156
Plant Genera Included in Earlier Volumes
1. List of plant genera Vol-l (Abe - AIle)1171
2. List of plant genera Vol-2 (Alli - Ard)1173
3. List of plant genera Vol-3 (Are - Azi)1175
4. List of plant genera Vol-4 (Ba - By)1176
5. List of plant genera Vol-5 (Ca - Ce)1178
6. List of plant genera Vol-6 (Ch - Ci)1181
7. List of plant genera Vol- 7 (Cl - Co)1182
8. List of plant genera Vol-8 (Cr - Cy)1184
9. List of plant genera Vol-9 (Da - Dy)1186

Contents Vol XI

ForewordV
PrefaceVII
AcknowledgementsVIII
AbbreviationsXI
IntroductionXIX
Monographs
Faba1
Fagara10
Fagonia21
Fagopyrum34
Fagraea59
Fagus62
Farsetia67
Feronia69
Ferula92
Festuca133
Ficus147
Filago369
Filicium371
Fimbristylis373
Finlaysonia376
Firmiana380
Fissistigrna383
Fitzroya385
Flacourtia387
Flagellaria411
Flaveria414
Flemingia422
Fleurya438
Flickingeria440
Flindersia446
Floscopa448
Flueggea450
Foeniculum459
Forrestia503
Forsythia506
Fortunella509
Fragaria511
Francoeuria536
Fraxinus538
Freycinetia558
Friesodielsia559
Fritillaria561
Fuchsia571
Fumaria574
Furcraea600
Gagea602
Gaillardia603
Galega605
Galinsoga608
Galium612
Gamolepsis619
Garcinia621
Gardenia699
Gardneria733
Garuga735
Gaultheria743
Geissaspis751
Gelonium752
Gelsemium760
Gentiana764
Gentianella776
Geodorum780
Geophila782
Geranium784
Gerbera800
Geum804
Ginkgo808
Girardinia852
Gisekia857
Givotia860
Gleditsia863
Gleichenia866
Glinus867
Gliricidia879
Globba886
Glochidion891
Gloriosa903
Glossocardia939
Glossogyne944
Glycine947
Glycosmis978
Glycycarpus1002
Glycyrrhiza1003
Gmelina1072
Gnaphalium1107
Gnetum1116
Gnidia1124
Goldfussia1129
Gomphandra1131
Gomphostemrna1133
Gomphrena1137
Gonatanthus1144
Gongronema1146
Goniothalamus1148
Gonostegia1154
Goodyera1156
Gordonia1157
Gossypium1159
Gouania1213
Grangea1216
Grevillea1223
Grewia1228
Griffonia1281
Guaiacum1283
Guazuma1286
Guettarda1293
Guizotia1296
Gymnacranthera1304
Gymnadenia1305
Gymnema1306
Gymnopetalum1358
Gymnosporia1360
Gymnostachyum1371
Gynocardia1372
Gynura1376
Gypsophila1381
Gyrocarpus1385
Appendices
1. List of plants reported for only ethnobotanicall traditional uses1389
2. List of plants not included in the volume due to change in botanical nomenclature1413
3. List of some important books, treatises and1414
Indices
1. Index of family names including generic names1429
2. Index of botanical names1432
3. Index of bioactive phytoconstituents1453
4. Index of pharmacological and biological activity1459
5. Index of regional and other names1473
Plant Genera Included in Earlier Volumes
1. List of plant genera Vol-1 (Abe - AIle)1499
2. List of plant genera Vol-2 (Alli - Ard)1501
3. List of plant genera Vol-3 (Are - Azi)1503
4. List of plant genera Vol-4 (Ba - By)1504
5. List of plant genera Vol-5 (Ca - Ce)1506
6. List of plant genera Vol-6 (Ch - Ci)1509
7. List of plant genera Vol-7 (CI- Co)1510
8. List of plant genera Vol-8 (Cr - Cy)1512
9. List of plant genera Vol-9 (Da - Dy)1514
10. List of plant genera Vol-l0 (Ec - Ex)1516

Contents Vol XII

ForewordV
PrefaceVII
AcknowledgementsVIII
AbbreviationsXI
IntroductionXXI
MonographsPage
Habenaria1
Hackelia9
Haemanthus10
Haematocarpus13
Haematoxylon15
Hakea18
Halenia20
Halerpestes24
Halodule25
Halogeton27
Halophila29
Haloxylon33
Hamelia35
Hamiltonia40
Haplanthodes43
Haplophragma46
Hardwickia49
Harpagophytum55
Harpullia64
Harrisonia66
Hartmannia68
Heckeria70
Hedera72
Hedranthera85
Hedychium88
Hedyotis130
Hedysarum149
Helianthus166
Helicanthes202
Helichrysum204
Helicia212
Heliconia213
Helicteres215
Helinus244
Heliotropium246
Helixanthera285
Helleborus287
Helminthostachys291
Hemarthria297
Hemidesmus299
Hemigraphis357
Hemionitis363
Hemiphragma367
Heptapleurum369
Herac1eum371
Heritiera400
Hernandia406
Herniaria409
Herpetospermum412
Hesperethusa414
Heteropanax420
Heterophragma422
Heteropogon427
Heterostemma433
Hevea435
Hexachlamys446
Heylandia448
Heynea450
Hibiscus452
Hippeastrum560
Hippocratea562
Hippophae565
Hiptage608
Hitchenia615
Hodgsonia616
Hoffmannseggia618
Holarrhena620
Holboellia681
Holigama683
Holmskioldia690
Holoptelea695
Holostemma714
Homalium723
Homalomena725
Homonoia728
Hopea733
Hoppea738
Hordeum741
Homstedtia774
Horsfieldia776
Houttuynia778
Hoya790
Hugonia794
Humboldtia798
Humulus801
Hybanthus823
Hydnocarpus834
Hydrangea851
Hydrastis858
Hydrilla865
Hydrocotyle872
Hydrolea884
Hydrophylax887
Hygrophila888
Hymenaea924
Hymenantherum928
Hymenocallis930
H ymenodictyon933
Hyoscyamus941
Hypecoum964
Hypericum966
Hyphaene1016
Hypochoeris1019
Hypogynium1021
Hypolepis1022
Hypoxis1024
Hyptianthera1026
Hyptis1029
Hyssopus .1059
Appendices
1. List of plants reported for only ethnobotanical/ traditional uses1069
2. List of plants not included in the volume due to change in botanical nomenclature1087
3. List of some important books, treatises and encyclopaedias referred1088
Indices
1. Index of family names including generic names1103
2. Index of botanical names1106
3. Index of bioactive phytoconstituents1121
4. Index of pharmacological and biological activity1126
5. Index of regional and other names1137
Plant Genera Included in Earlier Volumes
1. List of plant genera Vol-1 (Abe - AIle)1153
2. List of plant genera Vol-2 (Alli - Ard)1155
3. List of plant genera Vol-3 (Are - Azi)1157
4. List of plant genera Vol-4 (Ba - By)1158
5. List of plant genera Vol-5 (Ca - Ce)1160
6. List of plant genera Vol-6 (Ch - Ci)1163
7. List of plant genera Vol-7 (CI- Co)1164
8. List of plant genera Vol-8 (Cr - Cy)1166
9. List of plant genera Vol-9 (Da - Dy)1168
10. List of plant genera Vol-10 (Ec - Ex)1170
11. List of plant genera Vol-ll (Fa - Gy)1172

Contents Vol XIII

ForewordV
PrefaceVII
AcknowledgementsVlll
AbbreviationsIX
IntroductionXV
Monographs
Iberis1
Ichnocarpus4
Hex20
Illicium26
Impatiens39
Imperata54
Incarvillea63
Indigofera65
Indoneesiella121
Inga125
Inocarpus126
Intsia127
Inula129
Iphigenia162
Ipomoea165
Iris273
Isachne288
Ischaemum290
Iseilema293
Isodon296
Isoetes299
Isonandra301
Itea302
Ixora304
Jacaranda331
Jacobinia336
Jacquemontia338
Jacquinia340
Jaeschkea342
Janakia344
Jasminum347
Jateorhiza401
Jatropha403
Juglans459
Juncus476
Juniperus479
Jurinea512
Justicia517
Kaempferia545
Kalanchoe561
Kallstroernia583
Kandelia585
Kayea588
Kedrostis590
Khaya592
Kickxia598
Kigelia602
Kirganelia610
Kleinhovia619
Klugia621
Knema622
Knoxia629
Kochia631
Koeleria636
Koelpinia638
Koelreuteria640
Kopsia641
Krascheninnikovia645
Kydia647
Kyllinga652
Appendices
1. List of plants reported for only ethnobotanical / traditional uses663
2. List of plants not included in the volume due to change in botanical nomenclature677
3. List of some important books, treatises and encyclopedias referred678
Indices
1. Index of family names including generic names693
2. Index of botanical names695
3. Index of bioactive constituents709
4. Index of pharmacological and biological activity710
5. Index of regional and other names719
Plant Genera Included in Earlier Volumes
1. List of Plant Genera Vol-l (Abe - AIle)739
2. List of Plant Genera Vol-2 (Alli - Ard)741
3. List of Plant Genera Vol-3 (Are - Azi)743
4. List of Plant Genera Vol-4 (Ba - By)744
5. List of Plant Genera Vol-5 (Ca - Ce)746
6. List of Plant Genera Vol-6 (Ch - Ci)749
7. List of Plant Genera Vol-7 (Cl- Co)750
8. List of Plant Genera Vol-8 (Cr - Cy)752
9. List of Plant Genera Vol-9 (Da - Dy)754
10. List of Plant Genera Vol-l 0 (Ec - Ex)757
11. List of Plant Genera Vol-ll (Fa - Gy)759
12. List of Plant Genera Vol-12 (Ha - Hy)762

Sample Pages

Volume I



Volume V



Volume XIII



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