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Books > Ayurveda > Ayurveda > Roga Vijnan and Vikriti Vijnan (Set of Two Volumes)
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Roga Vijnan and Vikriti Vijnan (Set of Two Volumes)
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Roga Vijnan and Vikriti Vijnan (Set of Two Volumes)
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Description
Volume I

About the Author

Prof. Dr. Rekha N. Jain is formerly head of Department of Pathology and Rognidan at Tilak Ayurveda College Pune she has also been a member of the board of studies at Pune University presently Prof. Jain is working as examiner for Graduate and post Graduate courses in Pune University and is also a research guide to MD and Ph D students in the same University. Prof. Jain has the honor of being guest speaker at institutes and colleges in USA and Mauritius and has also arranged workshops for foreign students.

Dr. Nandkumar Y. Thite graduated in Ayurveda with distinction in pathology & Medicine in 1972 and secured MBBS degree in 1979 both from Pune University Dr. Thite has been teaching the subject Rogavijnan to post graduate students for the last 13 years at Tilak an examiner for Rogavijnan Vikritivijjan subject in Pune University Dr. Thite has participated in many National & International conferences of Ayurveda as well as transfusion Medicine Dr. Thite has been working as medical officer at Indian Red Cross society’s Blood bank for the last 23 years.

The Author's Note

The Science of Ayurveda originated with the need to understand and cure diseases and to maintain health for human being. The correct diagnosis of a disease is essential for curing diseases. Although Ayurveda gained tremendous popularity right from inception, its usage dwindled with the advent of branches of new medicines and treatment. This is however changing now and what was looked purely as an alternative medicine, just a few years ago, is gaining mainstream following by students and doctors; and not only in India but from all over the world. Introducing this medical science and India being the country of its origin, it has attracted a lot of aspiring doctors, and international students community here.

All medical sciences focus on two aspects of disease, which are diagnosis and treatment. Ayurveda too focuses on these aspects and here these are called as "Rogavijnan-Vikriti Vijnan and Chikitsa". But till now they have not been looked at separately. Almost all the books written on Ayurveda have included 'Rogavijnan, Vikritvijnan and Chikitsa in the same book. This is however the first time that an effort has been made to separate these two aspects and looked at each distinctly. Some books in the past have tried to deal with these topics separately but have been limited in their acceptance and scope outside India due to the language barrier.

Looking to filling this gap between the international students and vernacular readers we decided to endeavour on a mission which would help us to shed light on each of these aspects separately, in international language like English and be more internationally acceptable. The text is not a mere literal translation of original Ayurvedic texts into English but an attempt is made to bring out the true essence of Ayurveda. This text book will be an introduction to Ayurveda and Rogavijnan and Vikriti vijnan for all the readers which will include students from abroad who might have science qualification and all who are keen to learn Ayurveda.

This book is therefore designed as a text book for the second year students of B.A.M.S. which comes under the authority of Central Council of Indian Medicine (C.C.I.M.) and recognised by Maharashtra University of Health Sciences (M.U.H.S.).

To do the justice to this mission we needed inputs not only from experts who understand these topics but also had specialised knowledge about 'Rogavijnan Vikritivijnan' and could look at it from the allpatic point of view while researching , analyzing and writing these facts. This is when Dr. Nandkumar Thite and I decided to come together and use his vast experience in allopathy and my own 30 years of experience as Professor, Researchers and Head of the Department of 'Rogavijnyan & Vikritivijnan' in the renounced 'Tilak Ayurveda Mahavidyalaya ' at Pune.

While this idea was even at its budding stage Mr. Pravin Kumar Gupt from Chaukhamba Sanskrit Pratishthan, Delhi showed an interest and his support in the mission and prompted us to work on and write out this book to publish it.

In this book, we have included description of 'Prakrit' and 'Vikrit' dosha, dhatu, mala according to Ayurveda, as well as the patho-physiology of these three basic elements in the initial chapter.

The subject of "Movements of Dosha" which has got importance in manifestation as well as diagnosis and management of disease is described in detail. The basic pathogenesis of diseases according to Ayurveda is described under the chapter of "Disease contributory factors". In the chapter of 'Systemic Pathology we have tried to explain the concept of 'Srotas' in a simplified manner. 'Agni' and 'Aam' the two specialities of Ayurveda are also made clear in the chapter of "Disease contributory factors". The two unique features of Ayurveda called 'Ojas' the vital essence and 'Vyadhi-kshamatva' or body resistance, are also considered.

The five diagnostic criteria described by 'Ayurveda' as 'Nidanpanchak' are of prime importance in the clinical diagnosis of a disease. These are explained in detail so that students will acquire confidence in this basic subject.

The other criteria regarding diseases such as stages, classifications, complications, death indicating symptoms, prognosis etc. are also covered in a detailed and simple manner. The epidemic and hereditary diseases described in Ayurveda are also included.

Last but not least, the text has explained the various methods of examination of the patient and examination of diseases. How to prepare record of examination of patient is also supplemented in detail. This is also helpful to students for purpose of practical examination.

Introduction

The study of only one science is not sufficient for scientific decision. Hence a physician should have knowledge of many sciences.

Ayurveda the science of life has described the pathology of various diseases i.e. Rogavijnan and Vikritivijnan in the era 2500 B.C. without sophisticated equipments based on physics and chemistry. The subject forms the basis of medicine surgery genecology and obstetrics hence it is essential to know why how and what about the various diseases.

• Why did it happen? (causes)
• How did it happen? (pathogenesis)
• What are alterations produced? (lesions)
• What are signs and symptoms ?
• What is clinical significance? (Course, Prognosis)

Answers to these questions means ‘Rogavijnan’ and ‘Vikritivijnan’.

Ayurveda has described human body as:

i.e. Dosha, Dhatu, Mala are the basis of human body.

What is Dosha?

The meaning of Dosha is defect actually these are three endogenous factors which govern all the body activities right from conception till death. They are not having any defect but as they are able to produce defect in all the body elements including themselves they are called as Dosha they are named as: Vata, Pitta, Kapha.

What is Dhatu?

The meaning of Dhatu is which gives support. The human body is made up of seven body elements or tissues. They are named as Rasa, Rakta, Mamsa, Meda, Asthi, Majja and Shukra.

What is Mala?

The meaning of Mala in excretory waste product. During various body processes three waste products are produced which are excerted. They are named as Purisha Mutra and Sveda.

Thus the three endogenous factors or vitia the seven body elements or tissues and the three waste products form the basis of Ayurvedic physiology and pathology of human body.

What is Health?

When the endogenous factors the digestive power the body elements and waste products are in a balanced physiological state along with well being of soul sense organs and mind then that individual is called as healthy. In additions the factors which affect characters of mind are also considered by Ayurveda in respect of health. They are property of purity of mind or goodness passion and delusion or ignorance.

Importance of Vikritivijnan?

The normal balanced physiological state of the body is called prakriti or samya the abnormal unbalanced pathological state of body is called Vikriti or Vaishanya. The knowledge of physiology is essential to understand the pathological processes occurring in the body. When a pathological lesion is produced it is manifested in the form of signs and symptoms of that particular disease. According to Ayurveda before the actual production of pathological lesion there is excessive accumulation provocation and then spread of Vara, pitta, kapha Ayurveda has described the properties functions types etc of these three endogenous factors also the signs and symptoms of their abnormality are described.

All this knowledge will help not only in early diagnosis and effective treatment but also in prevention of various diseases. The progress of a disease can be arrested at an early stage.

Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction
What is Dosha?1
What is Dhatu?2
What is Mala?2
What is Health?2
Importance of Vikritivijnan?2
Chapter 2 Patho-Physiology of Dosha Dhatu Mala
Dosha The Endogenous factors
(1) Vata Dosha
The Properties of Physiological Vata4
The site or location of Vata4
Functions of Vata4
Types of Vata & Their functions5
Causes of Increase & provocation of Vata5
Manifestations of Increased Vata6
Manifestations of Provocated Vata6
Manifestations of Decreased Vata6
(2) Pitta Dosha
The Properties of Physiological Pitta7
The site or location of Pitta7
Functions of Pitta7
Types of Pitta & Their functions7
Causes of Increase & provocation of Pitta8
Manifestations of Increased Pitta8
Manifestations of Provocated Pitta8
Manifestations of Decreased Pitta9
(3) Kapha Dosha
The Properties of Physiological Kapha9
The site or location of Kapha9
Functions of Kapha9
Types of Kapha & their Functions10
Causes of Increase & provocation of Kapha10
Manifestations of Increased Kapha10
Manifestations of Provocated Kapha10
Manifestations of Decreased Kapha11
Dhatu The Body elements (Tissues)
Seven body Elements11
The Production of body Elements12
Theories of production & Nourishment of body elements 13
- Ksheera-dadhi Nyaya13
- Kedari-kulya Nyaya13
- Khale-Kapota Nyaya14
1. Rasa dhatu (Body nourishing fluid)14
2. Rakta dhatu (blood)15
3. Mamsa dhatu (Muscle Tissue)16
4. Medo dhatu (fatty Tissue)17
5. Asthi dhatu (Bone Tissue)17
6. Majja dhatu (Bone Marrow)18
7. Shukra dhatu (Semen)19
Mala: Excretary Products
1. Purisha mala (faeces)20
2. Mutra mala (urine)20
3. Sveda mala (Sweat)20
Definition of Health22
What is body nourishing fluid?22
Chapter 3 Movement of Doshas
Meaning of Srotas Koshtha & Shakha24
Movement of Doshas in the Body24
The Causes of disturbances in Normal Movement of Doshas26
Relation of Cavity & Branch27
Types of Movements of Doshas27
Routes or site of Desease28
The Importance of Route of a Disease31
Chapter 4 Disease Contributory Factors
Five Contributory Factors of Disease33
Factor: 1
The Doshas – Vata, Pitta, Kapha34
The Innate Qualities of Doshas35
Different ways of Vitiation of Doshas36
- Natural & Unnatural Vitiation36
- Dependent & Independent Vitiation37
- Vitiation Similar or Dissimilar to body constitution37
- Vitiation according to movements of Doshas38
- Vitiation of two or three Doshas at a time38
The Causative factors of vitiation or provocation39
Factor: 2
The Systems & Body elements (Dushya)40
What is Strotas?40
Role of Srotas in Pathogenesis41
-Morphology of a system41
- The Root site of system41
- The number of system42
Metabolism in a System42
Factor: 3
The Defective Site in the Body43
Etiology of defective Site44
Causes of Vitiation of a system45
Defect in system & Vitiation of System46
General Manifestation of Vitiated System46
- Excessive production46
- obstruction47
- Reduced Lumen48
- Diverted Movements48
Factor: 4
The Undigested Harmful toxic waste product (Ama)48
What is Ama?49
Causes of production of Ama49
- Reduced digestive power49
- The State of Doshas51
- Normalcy of Organ of digestive power52
- Excess accumulation of Metabolites52
Manifestations of Ama52
Factors Responsible for Manifestations of Ama54
Manifestation of Disease when undigested waste product is present (Sama- vyadhi)56
Factor: 5
The Digestive power (Agni)57
The Types of Digestive Power58
Chapter 5 The Disease
The Synonyms of Disease61
Definition of a Disease62
Relation between Dosha & Disease63
Cause & Creation Relationship63
Disease Related to self63
The Classification of Disease66
Disease Caused by External Agents67
Disease Due to Divine Causes67
80 Diseases of Vata70
40 Diseases of Pitta72
20 Diseases of Kapha73
Commingling of disease & Cause74
Commingling of Disease & Manifestation74
Quality Differentiation of Pathogenesis75
Seriousness of Disease75
Classification of Disease (W.H.O)76
Chapter 6 Stages of Disease
Etiology of Change in stages78
Different Stages of Disease80
- According to stages of Doshas81
- According to stages of Body Elements82
- According to stages of Obstruction in a system82
- According to stages of Undigested Product83
- According to Nature of Disease83
Important of Stages of Disease83
Advancement of Disease into Body Elements84
Disease due to Vitiation of body Elements/System87
Disease due to Vitiation of Organs90
Disease due to Vitiation of Sub-Elements90
Disease due to Vitiation of Excretory Products91
Chapter 7 The Systemic Pathology
Respiratory System92
Digestive System93
Water or body Fluid System94
Body Nourishing Fluid/Lymphatic System95
Circulatory & Heamopoetic System96
Muscular System97
Fatty Tissue System97
Skeletal or Bone tissue System98
Bone marrow or Nervous System98
Reproductive System99
Menstruation System99
Urinary System100
Defecation System100
Perspiration System101
Chapter 8 The Vital Essence
The Entry of Vital essence into Human Body102
Location & Nature of vital Essence102
Subdivision of Vital Essence102
Abnormalities of Viral Essence103
Importance of Vital essence104
Chapter 9 The Five Diagnostic Criteria
Etiological Factors (Nidan)
Types of Etiological Factors106
(1) – Sannikrishta hutu107
– Viprakrishta hetu107
– Vyabhichari hetu108
– Pradhanika hetu109
(2) – Asatmya Indriyartha Samyoga110
– Prajnaparadha112
– Parinama113
(3) – Vitiating Causes114
– Cause of Disease114
– Both Etiological factors115
(4) – Developing Causes115
– Motivating Causes116
(5)– External Causes116
– Internal Causes116
Importance of Etiological factors116
Prodromal Symptoms (Purvarupa)
Definition of Prodromal Symptoms117
Classification of Prodromal Symptoms119
Importance of Prodromal Symptoms119
Types of Prodromal Symptoms119
Clinical Manifestation (Rupa)
Signs & Symptoms121
- Specific Diagnostic symptoms123
- Dosha- wise symptoms123
- Stage wise symptoms123
- Symptoms Felt by the Patient123
- Sings observed by the physician124
Disease symptoms124
Importance of symptoms124
Relieving & Aggravating Factors (Upashya-Anupashaya)
Types of Relieving & aggravating Factors126
Difference between Relieving factors & Treatment127
Importance of Relieving factors128
Pathogenesis (samprapti)
Role of Etiology in Pathogenesis129
Role of Body Elements in Pathogenesis129
The Symptoms According to the defective site130
Role of Organs or sites in Pathogenesis131
Pathogenesis & Six stages in action131
Manifestation (Vyakti)132
Differentiation (bheda)132
Types of Pathogenesis133
Importance of knowledge about pathogenesis137
Chapter 10 Compications
Definition of Complications138
Types of Complications139
Disease with Complications & Two Disease at a time 140
Complications & After effect140
Complications & stage of Disease141
Chapter 11 Death Indicating Symptoms
Types of Death indicating Symptoms142
- Symptoms due to disorders of sense organs143
- Symptoms of physical disorders144
- Mental Symptoms144
- Abnormal Prodromal Symptoms144
- Common Death indicating Symptoms145
Chapter 12 Prognosis & Four Essentials of Good Prognosis
Prognosis of a Disease146
Classifications of Prognosis146
Easily Curable (Sukha-sadhya)147
Difficult to cure (kashtra-sadhya)148
Under control by treatment (Yapya)149
Uncurable by any treatment (asadhya)150
The four Basic essentials of Prognosis150
- Physician151
- Medicine151
- Nurse152
- Patient152
Chapter 13 Epidemics
Etiology of epidemics153
Niyata Atankapraya Hetu154
Aniyata Atankapraya Hetu155
Symptoms of epidemics156
Treatment of Epidemics157
Management of Epidemics157
Chapter 14 Hereditary Diseases
Maternal Organs in Foetus158
Paternal Organs in Featus158
Causes Responsible for Hereditary Disease159
Chapter 15 The Body Resistance
Responsible Factors of body Resistance161
- Power of mind161
- Vital Essence161
- Digestive Power161
- Physical Strength162
Type of Strength163
Factors affecting the strength163
Modern Concepts of Immuno Physiology & Immuno Pathology165
Chapter 16 Examination of patient & Disease
Two Methods of Examination166
Three Methods of Examination167
- History of the patient167
- Direct physical examination167
- Inference168
Four Methods of Examination168
Five Methods of Examination169
Six Methods of Examination169
Eight Methods of Examination169
- Examination of pulse170
- Examination of Tongue171
- Examination of Urine172
- Examination of Stool173
- Examination of Sound175
- Examination by touch or Palpation176
- Examination of Eye176
- Examination of Physical stature of constitution177
Chapter 17 Ten Methods of Examination
Cardinal Factors of the Examination179
(1) Examination of body constitution179
- Characters of Kapha constitution180
- Characters of Pitta constitution181
- Character of Vata constitution182
(2) Pathological investigations185
(3) Examination of quality of body elements185
(4) Examination of Tone of the muscles188
(5) Proportions of body parts188
(6) Acceptability of the body189
(7) Examination of Mental courage190
(8) Examination of Digestive capacity191
(9) Examination of capacity of exercise191
(10) Examination of Age factor192
The importance of Ten Methods of Examination193
Chapter 18 Record of patients Examination
Collection of patients information194
Chief complaints195
Present History195
Past history of Disease & treatment195
Family history195
General Examination195
Patient’s Examination196
Systemic Examination197
Laboratory Examination201
Examination according to six stages of disease201
The doshas involved201
The Body elements affected201
The Excreta affected202
Nidan Panchak202
Pathogenesis described of compendium202
Relieving. Aggravating factors202
Diagnosis202
Volume II

Introduction

The ancient science of Ayurveda came into existence and developed maintenance of health and cure of diseases, as described by Charaka :

Ayurveda the science of life has described in detail about health and diseases. About various diseases it has described their etiology development signs symptoms prognosis complications etc. in detail.

In the first volume of this book of Regvijnan & Vikritivijnan the concept of Srotas described in Ayurveda was considered in detail. Now in this second volume of the book the various diseases developed in strotasas are discussed in detail. While describing a disease we have covered the important point like definition anatomy and physiology of that strotas described in Ayurveda etiology pathogenesis signs-symptoms complications after effects signs of severity prognosis differential diagnosis etc. The diseases are described srotas wise e.g. pranvaha Rasavaha etc. A line of treatment alongwith do’s and don’t is also included in brief.

As Ayurveda has given special importance to Vata vyadhi we have described them in a separate chapter. At the end of description of each disease the concluding remarks are given wherever possible in that the references of similar disease according to modern science are included. This will be helpful for the students in understanding the diseases & its comparison. The diagrammatic representation of Ayurvedic concept of Pathogenesis of a particular disease is also given wherever possible.

The important investigations necessary for the diagnosis of that particular disease are also mentioned. The topic of differential diagnosis which is a little confusing portion for the students is explained in a simple manner. The lise of botanical names of useful medicinal herbs is also included.

We anticipate that this description of disease will be useful for the students teachers research scholars of Ayurveda.

Contents

Chapter 1 Pran Vaha Stotas
1Pratishyaya2
2Kasa11
3Shwas26
4Hikka38
5Hridroga45
6Hridayabhighat55
7Parshwashula56
8Rahayakshama61
9Shosha76
Chapter 2 Anna Vaha Srotas
1Agnimandya81
2Ajeema85
3Alasaka90
4Vilambika92
5Arochaka93
6Aadhman96
7Amlapitta96
8Shula102
9Grahani110
10Krimi118
11Chhardi123
Chapter 3 Uddak Vaha Srotas
1Trishna129
2Arisar135
3Pravahika143
4Visuchika148
5Udar150
6Shotha161
Chapter 4 Rassa Vaha Srotas
1Jwar170
2Pandu roga196
3Aama vata204
4Dhamni pratichaya208
5Urusthamba208
Chapter 5 Rakta Vaha Srotas
1Kamla211
2Rakta Pitta218
3Daha224
4Pada-Daha227
5Pleeha-roga228
6Raktah-Krimi231
7Shleepada232
8Phiranga235
9Upadansha238
10Kushtha239
11Kilas Kushtha250
12Visarpa252
13Sheetapitta-Udarda-Kotha258
14Masurika260
15Sheetala266
16Romantika268
17Tila-Kalak269
18Nyachha270
19Vyanga (Nilika)270
20Arunshika271
21Darunak271
22Indralupta271
23Yuvan-Pidaka272
Chapter 6 Mamsa Vaha Srotas
1Mamsagata vata274
2Snayugata Vata274
3Karshya275
Chapter 7 Medo Vaha Srotas
1Prameha277
2Medo Roga291
Chapter 8 Asthi Vaha Srotas
1Asthigata Vata295
2Asthyavrita Vata295
3Sandhigata Vata296
4Vata-Kantak297
5Kroshthuk shrisha297
6Vata-Rakta298
Chapter 9 Majja Vaha Srotas
1Shirobhighata305
2Bhrama305
3Unmada306
4Apasmar310
5Mada315
6Moorccha317
7Samnyas321
8Madatyay/ Panatyaya324
9Paramada326
10Atatwabhinivesha327
Chapter 10 Shrukra Vaha Srotas
1Klaibya329
2Shuka Dosha332
3Shukragata vata334
4Chapter 11 Mootra Vaha Srotas
1Mootra-Kriccha335
2Mootraghata339
3Tooni-Pratitooni344
4Mootrashmari345
Chapter 12 Swed Vaha Srotas
Bahya Krimi350
Chapter 13 Purish Vaha Srotas
1Malavasthambha351
2Udavarta353
3Vatashtila354
4Pakwashyayagat Vata355
Chapter 14 Vata vyadhi
Definition356
Etiology of Vata-Vyadhi357
Pathogenesis357
Prodomal Symptoms358
Symptoms358
1Paksha-vadha359
2Sarvanga Vata361
3Ardita362
4Gridhrasi364
5Vishwachi365
6Khalli366
7Djamistambha366
8Akshepaka368
9Apatamtraka368
10Apatanaka369
11Dandapatanaka369
12Hanustambha370
13Jihva-Stambha370
14Mook Minmin, Gadgada371
15Manyastambha371
16Khanja372
17Pangu372
18Ansa-shosha372
19Avabahuk372
20Vepathu kampa373
21Pada Harsha373
22Kubja373
23Kalaya Khanja373
24Urustambha374
25Aavrita-vata376
26Dhatugata-vata380
Vyavaccheda Nidan (Differential Diagnosis)
1Swelling & pain in Joint383
2Cough (kasa)383
3Fever (Jwar)384
4Haemoptysis (sarakta Stheevan)384
5Vomiting (Chardi)385
6Loose Motitions (Drava mala Pravritti)385
7Pain in chest (Urah shoola)386
Some other important Diseases
- Shwasa387
- Rajayakshma387
- Pandu388
- Kamala388
- Amlapitta389
- Raktapitta389
- Prameha390
- Udar390
- Shoola391
- Shotha391
- Pakshavadha392
Index of Herbs393
Bibliography396
Sample Pages

Volume I











Volume II













Roga Vijnan and Vikriti Vijnan (Set of Two Volumes)

Item Code:
NAM232
Cover:
Paperback
Edition:
2015
ISBN:
9788170846606
Language:
English
Size:
9.0 inch X 6.0 inch
Pages:
644 (24 Color Illustrations)
Other Details:
Weight of the Book: 622 gms
Price:
$40.00   Shipping Free
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Volume I

About the Author

Prof. Dr. Rekha N. Jain is formerly head of Department of Pathology and Rognidan at Tilak Ayurveda College Pune she has also been a member of the board of studies at Pune University presently Prof. Jain is working as examiner for Graduate and post Graduate courses in Pune University and is also a research guide to MD and Ph D students in the same University. Prof. Jain has the honor of being guest speaker at institutes and colleges in USA and Mauritius and has also arranged workshops for foreign students.

Dr. Nandkumar Y. Thite graduated in Ayurveda with distinction in pathology & Medicine in 1972 and secured MBBS degree in 1979 both from Pune University Dr. Thite has been teaching the subject Rogavijnan to post graduate students for the last 13 years at Tilak an examiner for Rogavijnan Vikritivijjan subject in Pune University Dr. Thite has participated in many National & International conferences of Ayurveda as well as transfusion Medicine Dr. Thite has been working as medical officer at Indian Red Cross society’s Blood bank for the last 23 years.

The Author's Note

The Science of Ayurveda originated with the need to understand and cure diseases and to maintain health for human being. The correct diagnosis of a disease is essential for curing diseases. Although Ayurveda gained tremendous popularity right from inception, its usage dwindled with the advent of branches of new medicines and treatment. This is however changing now and what was looked purely as an alternative medicine, just a few years ago, is gaining mainstream following by students and doctors; and not only in India but from all over the world. Introducing this medical science and India being the country of its origin, it has attracted a lot of aspiring doctors, and international students community here.

All medical sciences focus on two aspects of disease, which are diagnosis and treatment. Ayurveda too focuses on these aspects and here these are called as "Rogavijnan-Vikriti Vijnan and Chikitsa". But till now they have not been looked at separately. Almost all the books written on Ayurveda have included 'Rogavijnan, Vikritvijnan and Chikitsa in the same book. This is however the first time that an effort has been made to separate these two aspects and looked at each distinctly. Some books in the past have tried to deal with these topics separately but have been limited in their acceptance and scope outside India due to the language barrier.

Looking to filling this gap between the international students and vernacular readers we decided to endeavour on a mission which would help us to shed light on each of these aspects separately, in international language like English and be more internationally acceptable. The text is not a mere literal translation of original Ayurvedic texts into English but an attempt is made to bring out the true essence of Ayurveda. This text book will be an introduction to Ayurveda and Rogavijnan and Vikriti vijnan for all the readers which will include students from abroad who might have science qualification and all who are keen to learn Ayurveda.

This book is therefore designed as a text book for the second year students of B.A.M.S. which comes under the authority of Central Council of Indian Medicine (C.C.I.M.) and recognised by Maharashtra University of Health Sciences (M.U.H.S.).

To do the justice to this mission we needed inputs not only from experts who understand these topics but also had specialised knowledge about 'Rogavijnan Vikritivijnan' and could look at it from the allpatic point of view while researching , analyzing and writing these facts. This is when Dr. Nandkumar Thite and I decided to come together and use his vast experience in allopathy and my own 30 years of experience as Professor, Researchers and Head of the Department of 'Rogavijnyan & Vikritivijnan' in the renounced 'Tilak Ayurveda Mahavidyalaya ' at Pune.

While this idea was even at its budding stage Mr. Pravin Kumar Gupt from Chaukhamba Sanskrit Pratishthan, Delhi showed an interest and his support in the mission and prompted us to work on and write out this book to publish it.

In this book, we have included description of 'Prakrit' and 'Vikrit' dosha, dhatu, mala according to Ayurveda, as well as the patho-physiology of these three basic elements in the initial chapter.

The subject of "Movements of Dosha" which has got importance in manifestation as well as diagnosis and management of disease is described in detail. The basic pathogenesis of diseases according to Ayurveda is described under the chapter of "Disease contributory factors". In the chapter of 'Systemic Pathology we have tried to explain the concept of 'Srotas' in a simplified manner. 'Agni' and 'Aam' the two specialities of Ayurveda are also made clear in the chapter of "Disease contributory factors". The two unique features of Ayurveda called 'Ojas' the vital essence and 'Vyadhi-kshamatva' or body resistance, are also considered.

The five diagnostic criteria described by 'Ayurveda' as 'Nidanpanchak' are of prime importance in the clinical diagnosis of a disease. These are explained in detail so that students will acquire confidence in this basic subject.

The other criteria regarding diseases such as stages, classifications, complications, death indicating symptoms, prognosis etc. are also covered in a detailed and simple manner. The epidemic and hereditary diseases described in Ayurveda are also included.

Last but not least, the text has explained the various methods of examination of the patient and examination of diseases. How to prepare record of examination of patient is also supplemented in detail. This is also helpful to students for purpose of practical examination.

Introduction

The study of only one science is not sufficient for scientific decision. Hence a physician should have knowledge of many sciences.

Ayurveda the science of life has described the pathology of various diseases i.e. Rogavijnan and Vikritivijnan in the era 2500 B.C. without sophisticated equipments based on physics and chemistry. The subject forms the basis of medicine surgery genecology and obstetrics hence it is essential to know why how and what about the various diseases.

• Why did it happen? (causes)
• How did it happen? (pathogenesis)
• What are alterations produced? (lesions)
• What are signs and symptoms ?
• What is clinical significance? (Course, Prognosis)

Answers to these questions means ‘Rogavijnan’ and ‘Vikritivijnan’.

Ayurveda has described human body as:

i.e. Dosha, Dhatu, Mala are the basis of human body.

What is Dosha?

The meaning of Dosha is defect actually these are three endogenous factors which govern all the body activities right from conception till death. They are not having any defect but as they are able to produce defect in all the body elements including themselves they are called as Dosha they are named as: Vata, Pitta, Kapha.

What is Dhatu?

The meaning of Dhatu is which gives support. The human body is made up of seven body elements or tissues. They are named as Rasa, Rakta, Mamsa, Meda, Asthi, Majja and Shukra.

What is Mala?

The meaning of Mala in excretory waste product. During various body processes three waste products are produced which are excerted. They are named as Purisha Mutra and Sveda.

Thus the three endogenous factors or vitia the seven body elements or tissues and the three waste products form the basis of Ayurvedic physiology and pathology of human body.

What is Health?

When the endogenous factors the digestive power the body elements and waste products are in a balanced physiological state along with well being of soul sense organs and mind then that individual is called as healthy. In additions the factors which affect characters of mind are also considered by Ayurveda in respect of health. They are property of purity of mind or goodness passion and delusion or ignorance.

Importance of Vikritivijnan?

The normal balanced physiological state of the body is called prakriti or samya the abnormal unbalanced pathological state of body is called Vikriti or Vaishanya. The knowledge of physiology is essential to understand the pathological processes occurring in the body. When a pathological lesion is produced it is manifested in the form of signs and symptoms of that particular disease. According to Ayurveda before the actual production of pathological lesion there is excessive accumulation provocation and then spread of Vara, pitta, kapha Ayurveda has described the properties functions types etc of these three endogenous factors also the signs and symptoms of their abnormality are described.

All this knowledge will help not only in early diagnosis and effective treatment but also in prevention of various diseases. The progress of a disease can be arrested at an early stage.

Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction
What is Dosha?1
What is Dhatu?2
What is Mala?2
What is Health?2
Importance of Vikritivijnan?2
Chapter 2 Patho-Physiology of Dosha Dhatu Mala
Dosha The Endogenous factors
(1) Vata Dosha
The Properties of Physiological Vata4
The site or location of Vata4
Functions of Vata4
Types of Vata & Their functions5
Causes of Increase & provocation of Vata5
Manifestations of Increased Vata6
Manifestations of Provocated Vata6
Manifestations of Decreased Vata6
(2) Pitta Dosha
The Properties of Physiological Pitta7
The site or location of Pitta7
Functions of Pitta7
Types of Pitta & Their functions7
Causes of Increase & provocation of Pitta8
Manifestations of Increased Pitta8
Manifestations of Provocated Pitta8
Manifestations of Decreased Pitta9
(3) Kapha Dosha
The Properties of Physiological Kapha9
The site or location of Kapha9
Functions of Kapha9
Types of Kapha & their Functions10
Causes of Increase & provocation of Kapha10
Manifestations of Increased Kapha10
Manifestations of Provocated Kapha10
Manifestations of Decreased Kapha11
Dhatu The Body elements (Tissues)
Seven body Elements11
The Production of body Elements12
Theories of production & Nourishment of body elements 13
- Ksheera-dadhi Nyaya13
- Kedari-kulya Nyaya13
- Khale-Kapota Nyaya14
1. Rasa dhatu (Body nourishing fluid)14
2. Rakta dhatu (blood)15
3. Mamsa dhatu (Muscle Tissue)16
4. Medo dhatu (fatty Tissue)17
5. Asthi dhatu (Bone Tissue)17
6. Majja dhatu (Bone Marrow)18
7. Shukra dhatu (Semen)19
Mala: Excretary Products
1. Purisha mala (faeces)20
2. Mutra mala (urine)20
3. Sveda mala (Sweat)20
Definition of Health22
What is body nourishing fluid?22
Chapter 3 Movement of Doshas
Meaning of Srotas Koshtha & Shakha24
Movement of Doshas in the Body24
The Causes of disturbances in Normal Movement of Doshas26
Relation of Cavity & Branch27
Types of Movements of Doshas27
Routes or site of Desease28
The Importance of Route of a Disease31
Chapter 4 Disease Contributory Factors
Five Contributory Factors of Disease33
Factor: 1
The Doshas – Vata, Pitta, Kapha34
The Innate Qualities of Doshas35
Different ways of Vitiation of Doshas36
- Natural & Unnatural Vitiation36
- Dependent & Independent Vitiation37
- Vitiation Similar or Dissimilar to body constitution37
- Vitiation according to movements of Doshas38
- Vitiation of two or three Doshas at a time38
The Causative factors of vitiation or provocation39
Factor: 2
The Systems & Body elements (Dushya)40
What is Strotas?40
Role of Srotas in Pathogenesis41
-Morphology of a system41
- The Root site of system41
- The number of system42
Metabolism in a System42
Factor: 3
The Defective Site in the Body43
Etiology of defective Site44
Causes of Vitiation of a system45
Defect in system & Vitiation of System46
General Manifestation of Vitiated System46
- Excessive production46
- obstruction47
- Reduced Lumen48
- Diverted Movements48
Factor: 4
The Undigested Harmful toxic waste product (Ama)48
What is Ama?49
Causes of production of Ama49
- Reduced digestive power49
- The State of Doshas51
- Normalcy of Organ of digestive power52
- Excess accumulation of Metabolites52
Manifestations of Ama52
Factors Responsible for Manifestations of Ama54
Manifestation of Disease when undigested waste product is present (Sama- vyadhi)56
Factor: 5
The Digestive power (Agni)57
The Types of Digestive Power58
Chapter 5 The Disease
The Synonyms of Disease61
Definition of a Disease62
Relation between Dosha & Disease63
Cause & Creation Relationship63
Disease Related to self63
The Classification of Disease66
Disease Caused by External Agents67
Disease Due to Divine Causes67
80 Diseases of Vata70
40 Diseases of Pitta72
20 Diseases of Kapha73
Commingling of disease & Cause74
Commingling of Disease & Manifestation74
Quality Differentiation of Pathogenesis75
Seriousness of Disease75
Classification of Disease (W.H.O)76
Chapter 6 Stages of Disease
Etiology of Change in stages78
Different Stages of Disease80
- According to stages of Doshas81
- According to stages of Body Elements82
- According to stages of Obstruction in a system82
- According to stages of Undigested Product83
- According to Nature of Disease83
Important of Stages of Disease83
Advancement of Disease into Body Elements84
Disease due to Vitiation of body Elements/System87
Disease due to Vitiation of Organs90
Disease due to Vitiation of Sub-Elements90
Disease due to Vitiation of Excretory Products91
Chapter 7 The Systemic Pathology
Respiratory System92
Digestive System93
Water or body Fluid System94
Body Nourishing Fluid/Lymphatic System95
Circulatory & Heamopoetic System96
Muscular System97
Fatty Tissue System97
Skeletal or Bone tissue System98
Bone marrow or Nervous System98
Reproductive System99
Menstruation System99
Urinary System100
Defecation System100
Perspiration System101
Chapter 8 The Vital Essence
The Entry of Vital essence into Human Body102
Location & Nature of vital Essence102
Subdivision of Vital Essence102
Abnormalities of Viral Essence103
Importance of Vital essence104
Chapter 9 The Five Diagnostic Criteria
Etiological Factors (Nidan)
Types of Etiological Factors106
(1) – Sannikrishta hutu107
– Viprakrishta hetu107
– Vyabhichari hetu108
– Pradhanika hetu109
(2) – Asatmya Indriyartha Samyoga110
– Prajnaparadha112
– Parinama113
(3) – Vitiating Causes114
– Cause of Disease114
– Both Etiological factors115
(4) – Developing Causes115
– Motivating Causes116
(5)– External Causes116
– Internal Causes116
Importance of Etiological factors116
Prodromal Symptoms (Purvarupa)
Definition of Prodromal Symptoms117
Classification of Prodromal Symptoms119
Importance of Prodromal Symptoms119
Types of Prodromal Symptoms119
Clinical Manifestation (Rupa)
Signs & Symptoms121
- Specific Diagnostic symptoms123
- Dosha- wise symptoms123
- Stage wise symptoms123
- Symptoms Felt by the Patient123
- Sings observed by the physician124
Disease symptoms124
Importance of symptoms124
Relieving & Aggravating Factors (Upashya-Anupashaya)
Types of Relieving & aggravating Factors126
Difference between Relieving factors & Treatment127
Importance of Relieving factors128
Pathogenesis (samprapti)
Role of Etiology in Pathogenesis129
Role of Body Elements in Pathogenesis129
The Symptoms According to the defective site130
Role of Organs or sites in Pathogenesis131
Pathogenesis & Six stages in action131
Manifestation (Vyakti)132
Differentiation (bheda)132
Types of Pathogenesis133
Importance of knowledge about pathogenesis137
Chapter 10 Compications
Definition of Complications138
Types of Complications139
Disease with Complications & Two Disease at a time 140
Complications & After effect140
Complications & stage of Disease141
Chapter 11 Death Indicating Symptoms
Types of Death indicating Symptoms142
- Symptoms due to disorders of sense organs143
- Symptoms of physical disorders144
- Mental Symptoms144
- Abnormal Prodromal Symptoms144
- Common Death indicating Symptoms145
Chapter 12 Prognosis & Four Essentials of Good Prognosis
Prognosis of a Disease146
Classifications of Prognosis146
Easily Curable (Sukha-sadhya)147
Difficult to cure (kashtra-sadhya)148
Under control by treatment (Yapya)149
Uncurable by any treatment (asadhya)150
The four Basic essentials of Prognosis150
- Physician151
- Medicine151
- Nurse152
- Patient152
Chapter 13 Epidemics
Etiology of epidemics153
Niyata Atankapraya Hetu154
Aniyata Atankapraya Hetu155
Symptoms of epidemics156
Treatment of Epidemics157
Management of Epidemics157
Chapter 14 Hereditary Diseases
Maternal Organs in Foetus158
Paternal Organs in Featus158
Causes Responsible for Hereditary Disease159
Chapter 15 The Body Resistance
Responsible Factors of body Resistance161
- Power of mind161
- Vital Essence161
- Digestive Power161
- Physical Strength162
Type of Strength163
Factors affecting the strength163
Modern Concepts of Immuno Physiology & Immuno Pathology165
Chapter 16 Examination of patient & Disease
Two Methods of Examination166
Three Methods of Examination167
- History of the patient167
- Direct physical examination167
- Inference168
Four Methods of Examination168
Five Methods of Examination169
Six Methods of Examination169
Eight Methods of Examination169
- Examination of pulse170
- Examination of Tongue171
- Examination of Urine172
- Examination of Stool173
- Examination of Sound175
- Examination by touch or Palpation176
- Examination of Eye176
- Examination of Physical stature of constitution177
Chapter 17 Ten Methods of Examination
Cardinal Factors of the Examination179
(1) Examination of body constitution179
- Characters of Kapha constitution180
- Characters of Pitta constitution181
- Character of Vata constitution182
(2) Pathological investigations185
(3) Examination of quality of body elements185
(4) Examination of Tone of the muscles188
(5) Proportions of body parts188
(6) Acceptability of the body189
(7) Examination of Mental courage190
(8) Examination of Digestive capacity191
(9) Examination of capacity of exercise191
(10) Examination of Age factor192
The importance of Ten Methods of Examination193
Chapter 18 Record of patients Examination
Collection of patients information194
Chief complaints195
Present History195
Past history of Disease & treatment195
Family history195
General Examination195
Patient’s Examination196
Systemic Examination197
Laboratory Examination201
Examination according to six stages of disease201
The doshas involved201
The Body elements affected201
The Excreta affected202
Nidan Panchak202
Pathogenesis described of compendium202
Relieving. Aggravating factors202
Diagnosis202
Volume II

Introduction

The ancient science of Ayurveda came into existence and developed maintenance of health and cure of diseases, as described by Charaka :

Ayurveda the science of life has described in detail about health and diseases. About various diseases it has described their etiology development signs symptoms prognosis complications etc. in detail.

In the first volume of this book of Regvijnan & Vikritivijnan the concept of Srotas described in Ayurveda was considered in detail. Now in this second volume of the book the various diseases developed in strotasas are discussed in detail. While describing a disease we have covered the important point like definition anatomy and physiology of that strotas described in Ayurveda etiology pathogenesis signs-symptoms complications after effects signs of severity prognosis differential diagnosis etc. The diseases are described srotas wise e.g. pranvaha Rasavaha etc. A line of treatment alongwith do’s and don’t is also included in brief.

As Ayurveda has given special importance to Vata vyadhi we have described them in a separate chapter. At the end of description of each disease the concluding remarks are given wherever possible in that the references of similar disease according to modern science are included. This will be helpful for the students in understanding the diseases & its comparison. The diagrammatic representation of Ayurvedic concept of Pathogenesis of a particular disease is also given wherever possible.

The important investigations necessary for the diagnosis of that particular disease are also mentioned. The topic of differential diagnosis which is a little confusing portion for the students is explained in a simple manner. The lise of botanical names of useful medicinal herbs is also included.

We anticipate that this description of disease will be useful for the students teachers research scholars of Ayurveda.

Contents

Chapter 1 Pran Vaha Stotas
1Pratishyaya2
2Kasa11
3Shwas26
4Hikka38
5Hridroga45
6Hridayabhighat55
7Parshwashula56
8Rahayakshama61
9Shosha76
Chapter 2 Anna Vaha Srotas
1Agnimandya81
2Ajeema85
3Alasaka90
4Vilambika92
5Arochaka93
6Aadhman96
7Amlapitta96
8Shula102
9Grahani110
10Krimi118
11Chhardi123
Chapter 3 Uddak Vaha Srotas
1Trishna129
2Arisar135
3Pravahika143
4Visuchika148
5Udar150
6Shotha161
Chapter 4 Rassa Vaha Srotas
1Jwar170
2Pandu roga196
3Aama vata204
4Dhamni pratichaya208
5Urusthamba208
Chapter 5 Rakta Vaha Srotas
1Kamla211
2Rakta Pitta218
3Daha224
4Pada-Daha227
5Pleeha-roga228
6Raktah-Krimi231
7Shleepada232
8Phiranga235
9Upadansha238
10Kushtha239
11Kilas Kushtha250
12Visarpa252
13Sheetapitta-Udarda-Kotha258
14Masurika260
15Sheetala266
16Romantika268
17Tila-Kalak269
18Nyachha270
19Vyanga (Nilika)270
20Arunshika271
21Darunak271
22Indralupta271
23Yuvan-Pidaka272
Chapter 6 Mamsa Vaha Srotas
1Mamsagata vata274
2Snayugata Vata274
3Karshya275
Chapter 7 Medo Vaha Srotas
1Prameha277
2Medo Roga291
Chapter 8 Asthi Vaha Srotas
1Asthigata Vata295
2Asthyavrita Vata295
3Sandhigata Vata296
4Vata-Kantak297
5Kroshthuk shrisha297
6Vata-Rakta298
Chapter 9 Majja Vaha Srotas
1Shirobhighata305
2Bhrama305
3Unmada306
4Apasmar310
5Mada315
6Moorccha317
7Samnyas321
8Madatyay/ Panatyaya324
9Paramada326
10Atatwabhinivesha327
Chapter 10 Shrukra Vaha Srotas
1Klaibya329
2Shuka Dosha332
3Shukragata vata334
4Chapter 11 Mootra Vaha Srotas
1Mootra-Kriccha335
2Mootraghata339
3Tooni-Pratitooni344
4Mootrashmari345
Chapter 12 Swed Vaha Srotas
Bahya Krimi350
Chapter 13 Purish Vaha Srotas
1Malavasthambha351
2Udavarta353
3Vatashtila354
4Pakwashyayagat Vata355
Chapter 14 Vata vyadhi
Definition356
Etiology of Vata-Vyadhi357
Pathogenesis357
Prodomal Symptoms358
Symptoms358
1Paksha-vadha359
2Sarvanga Vata361
3Ardita362
4Gridhrasi364
5Vishwachi365
6Khalli366
7Djamistambha366
8Akshepaka368
9Apatamtraka368
10Apatanaka369
11Dandapatanaka369
12Hanustambha370
13Jihva-Stambha370
14Mook Minmin, Gadgada371
15Manyastambha371
16Khanja372
17Pangu372
18Ansa-shosha372
19Avabahuk372
20Vepathu kampa373
21Pada Harsha373
22Kubja373
23Kalaya Khanja373
24Urustambha374
25Aavrita-vata376
26Dhatugata-vata380
Vyavaccheda Nidan (Differential Diagnosis)
1Swelling & pain in Joint383
2Cough (kasa)383
3Fever (Jwar)384
4Haemoptysis (sarakta Stheevan)384
5Vomiting (Chardi)385
6Loose Motitions (Drava mala Pravritti)385
7Pain in chest (Urah shoola)386
Some other important Diseases
- Shwasa387
- Rajayakshma387
- Pandu388
- Kamala388
- Amlapitta389
- Raktapitta389
- Prameha390
- Udar390
- Shoola391
- Shotha391
- Pakshavadha392
Index of Herbs393
Bibliography396
Sample Pages

Volume I











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