Please Wait...

Sankara on the Yoga Sutras

Sankara on the Yoga Sutras
Item Code: IDI041
Author: Trevor Leggett
Publisher: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
Language: A Full Translation of the Newly Discovered Text
Edition: 2006
ISBN: 9788120829893
Pages: 434
Cover: Paperback
Other Details: 5.3"X 8.3"
weight of the book: 485 gms
Introduction for the General reader

The text translated here is an historical find: an unknown commentary on the Yoga sutra-s of Patanjali by Sankara, the most eminent philosopher of ancient India. Present indications are that it is likely to be authentic, which would date it about AD 700.

The many references to Yoga meditation in his accepted works have sometimes been regarded as concessions to accepted ideas of the time, and not really his own views. If he has chosen to write a commentary on yoga meditation, It must have been a central part of his own standpoint, although he was opposed to some of the philosophical doctrines of the official Yoga school. One would expect a tendency to modify those unacceptable doctrines, if this text is really by Sankara. This turns out to be the case.

For those familiar with yoga meditation, who to go straight into the text, here is the method of presentation:

(1) The Basic text, the Yoga sutra-s of Patanjali (about AD 300), is displayed in large type thus:

Sutra I.1 Now the exposition of Yoga.

(2) Below each sutra is a (mostly brief) commentary by Vyasa (about AD 600). This is printed in italics, and set in from the left-hand margin. Sometimes this commentary is printed in separate paragraphs.

The word Now means that this is the beginning, and the topic now begun is understood to be exposition of yoga.

(3) Below each section of the Vyasa commentary, and sometimes below the sutra itself, is the newly discovered Sankara sub-commentary (technically called a vivarana), printed in roman type and not set in from the margin, thus:

No one will follow through the practices and restrictions of yoga unless the goal and the related means to it have been clearly set out, and the commentator first explains what they were in the mind of the sutra author, so that people may be led to practice.

The structure of the Sanskrit text, which has to be followed in the translation, is that the words or phrase of the original sutra, then of Vyasa's bhasya commentary, have first to be quoted and glossed, in order. In this translation, the sutra or bhasya words being glossed in the main Sankara vivarana are given italics.

Introduction for the general reader1
Technical introduction17
1Yoga theory
Sutra I.1 Now the exposition of Yoga51
Sutra I.2Yoga is inhibition of the mental processes60
Sutra I.3Then the Seer is established in his own nature64
Sutra I.4Otherwise it conforms itself to the mental process65
2Mental Processes
Sutra I.5The mental processes are of five kinds; they are tainted or pure69
Sutra I.6Right knowledge illusion logical construction sleep memory70
Surta I.7Right knowledge is either direct perfection inference or authority70
Sutra I.8Illusion is false knowledge based on an untrue form88
Sutra I.9Logical construction is something that follows verbal knowledge but has no real object90
Sutra I.10The mental process which rests on the nation of non-existence is sleep93
Sutra I.11Memory is not letting slip away an object experienced 94
Sutra I.12Their inhibition is by practice and detachment97
Sutra I.13Practice is the effort at steadiness in it97
Sutra I.14But practiced for a long time uninterruptedly and with reverence it becomes firmly grounded98
Sutra I.15Detachment is consciousness of self mastery of one who has no thirst for any object either seen or heard about 98
Sutra I.16It is the higher detachment when from knowledge of Purusa there is no thirst for (even) the guna-s99
Sutra I.17It is cognitive because accompanied with verbal associations (vitarka)with sublte associations (vicara) with joy (ananda)and the form of I-am-ness (asmita)101
Sutra I.18The other (samadhi) follows on practice of the idea stopping and consists of samskara-s alone103
Sutra I.19It results from birth in the case of gods discarnate and in the case of those who absorb themselves into prakrti104
Sutra I.20For the others it comes after faith energy memory (cognitive) samadhi and knowledge105
Sutra I.21For those who practice with ardent energy it is near 106
Sutra I.22Even among the ardent there is a distinction of mind or moderate or intense106
Sutra I.23Or by special devotion to the Lord107
Sutra I.24Untouched by taints or karma-s or their fruition or their latent stocks is the Lord who is a special kind of Purusa107
Sutra I.25In whom the seed of omniscience becomes transcendent111
Sutra I. 26The teacher of even the first teachers because not particularized by time129
Sutra I.27Of him the expression is pranava (OM)131
Sutra I.28Repetition of it and meditation on its meaning134
6 Obstacles
Sutra I.29From that realization of the separate consciousness and absence of obstacles135
Sutra I.30Illness apathy doubt carelessness laziness failure to withdraw misconceptions failure to attain a state instability (in the state)-these distractions of the mind are the obstacles136
Sutra I.31Pain frustration restlessness of the body spasmodic breathing in or out are the accompaniments of these distractions138
Sutra I.32To prevent them practice on one principle139
7Special Practices
Sutra I.33The mind is made clear by meditation on friendliness towards the happy compassion for the suffering good will towards the virtuous and disinterest in the sinful146
Sutra I.34Or by expulsion and retention of prana147
Sutra I.35Or achievement of supernormal perception of a divine object brings the mind to steadiness148
Sutra I.36Or a radiant perception beyond sorrow149
Sutra I.37Or on a mind whose meditation is on freedom from passion150
Sutra I.38Or meditating on the knowledge of dream and sleep150
Sutra I.39Or by meditation on what appeals to him151
Sutra I.40His mastery extends right to the ultimate atom and to the ultimate magnitude151
Sutra I.41Identification- in -samadhi (samapatti) is when the mental process has dwindled and the mind rests on either the knower or the knowing process or a known object and like a crystal apparently takes on their respective qualities 152
Sutra I.42The samadhi -identification is called sa vitarka when it is mixed up with mental constructs of word thing and idea156
Sutra I.43When there is purification from memories (that samadhi) apparently empty of its own nature of knowledge with the object alone shining forth is nir-vitarka158
Sutra I.44In the same way when it is on sublte objects it is called sa- vicara (with subtle associations) and nir-vicara (without subtle associations)164
Sutra I.45The scale of (causal)subtlety of objects ends in pradhana165
Sutra I.46These are samadhi from-a-seed167
Sutra I.47From skill in nir-vicara a clearness in the self167
Sutra I.48In this the knowledge is truth-bearing167
Sutra I.49This knowledge is of a particular thing unlike knowledge from authority or from inference168
Sutra I.50The samskara produced by it inhibits other samskara-s169
Sutra I.51When that too is produced by it inhibited every thing is inhibited and thus this samadhi is without- seed171
1 Yoga of action
Sutra II.1Tapas, self -study, devotion to the Lord are the yoga of action174
Sutra II.2To actualize samadhi and thin out the taints177
Sutra II.3Ignorance, I-am-ness, desire, hate, instinctive self-preservation, are the taints177
Sutra II.4Ignorance is the field of germination of the subsequent ones, whether dormant or thinned out or checked or active179
Sutra II.5Ignorance is the conviction of permanence, purity, happiness and self in what are really impermanent, impure, painful and not self 185
Sutra II.6The single selfhood, as it were, of the powers of seer and seeing is I-am-ness191
Sutra II.7Desire follows on pleasure193
Sutra II.8Hate follows on pain193
Sutra II.9With spontaneous momentum, instinctive even in a Knower is self-preservation193
Sutra II.10In their subtle state, they are to be got rid of by dissolution in their source195
Sutra II.11Mental processes arising from them are got rid of by meditation195
Sutra II.12Rooted in taints is the karma-stock to be felt in present or future lives196
Sutra II.13While the root is there, it will bear the fruit of birth , life span and experience199
Sutra II.14Their fruits are joy and suffering caused by virtue and sin210
4 pain
Sutra II.15Because of the sufferings caused by changed and anxieties and the samskara-s of them and from the clash of the guna-s, to the clear -sighted, everything is pain alone211
Sutra II.16What is to be escaped is the pain not yet come223
Sutra II.17The Seer-Seen conjunction is the cause of what is to be escaped223
7 Guna-s again
Sutra II.18With a constant tendency towards light, action, and fixity, the Seen consists of the elements and the senses being for the purpose of experience and transcendence227
Sutra II.19What Particularizes itself and what does not what goes (linga, the Great principle) and what does not (a-linga, pradhana),are guna-implementers233
8 Purusa
Sutra II.20The Seer is sight alone; though pure he looks on at the thoughts239
Sutra II.21The essences of the Seen is to be for the purpose of him alone243
Sutra II.22For one purpose has been effected, it is ended, but not for others, because it is common244
Sutra II.23The conjunction causes awareness of the natures of the two powers, the property and possessor 245
Sutra II.24Its cause is Ignorance (a- vidya)250
Sutra II.25Without it, there is no conjunction, and that release is Transcendental Aloneness (kaivalya) of the power-of- sight252
10Release again
Sutra II.26Unwavering knowledge- of -the difference is the means of release254
Sutra II.27Therein, the ultimate state of the Knowledge is seven- fold255
11 Yoga
Sutra II.28From following up the methods of yoga, destruction of impurity and a growing light of knowledge up to Knowledge-of -the-difference257
Sutra II.29Restraints, observances, posture, restraint of vital currents, dissociation, concentration, meditation, samadhi are the eight methods 260
Sutra II.30Of these, harmlessness, truth- speaking no stealing brahmacarya, not holding possessions are the restraints 261
Sutra II.31 When practiced universally without qualification of Birth place time or obligation, they are called the Great Vow 263
Sutra II.32Purity, contentment, tapas, self-study, and devotion to the Lord are the observances264
14Contrary ideas
Sutra II.33If there is onstruction by contrary ideas, meditation on their opposite266
Sutra II.34The contrary ideas, violence and the others, done or caused to be done or approved of, preceded by greed anger or delusion, mild medium, or intense-all result in endless pain and Ignorance. This is the meditation on their opposite267
15 Perfections
Sutra II.35With establishment of harmlessness in his presence enmity is abandoned269
Sutra II.36With establishment of truth events confirm his words269
Sutra II.37With establishment in non-stealing, all precious things come to him270
Sutra II.38With establishment in brahmacarya, attainment of energy270
Sutra II.39With firmness in not possessing property clear knowledge of the condition of birth 270
Sutra II.40From purity distaste for his own body and no intercourse with others 271
Sutra II.41Purity of mind- sattva, cheerfulness one pointedness, conquest of the senses and fitness for vision of the self271
Sutra II.42From contentment attainment of unsurpassed happiness272
Sutra II.43From destruction of impurity by tapas, perfection of body and senses272
Sutra II.44From self- study, communication with the deity of his devotion272
Sutra II.45From devotion to the Lord perfection in samadhi273
Sutra II.46Posture is to be firm and pleasant273
Sutra II.47By relaxing effort and by samadhi (samapatti) on infinity274
Sutra II.48From that he becomes immune to the opposites275
Sutra II.49Pranayama is to sit in the posture and cut off the flow of in-breath and out-breath275
Sutra II.50The external internal and fixating operations practiced in terms of place of time and of number became long and fine 275
Sutra II.51The fourth pranayama comes when both external and internal fields have been felt into278
Sutra II.52Thereby is destroyed the covering of the light278
Sutra II.53Fitness of the mind for concentrations278
Sutra II.54Dissociation is when the senses disjoined from their respective objects assume as it were the nature of mind itself278
Sutra II.55From that supreme mastery of the senses279
1Inner Methods
Sutra III.1Dharana is binding the mind to a place 282
Sutra III.2Continuity of the mind there is dhyana (meditation)282
Sutra III.3That same (meditation), when it comes to shine forth as the object alone, apparently empty of its own nature as knowledge is called samadhi283
Sutra III.4The tried (held) at the one place is samyama284
Surta III.5From mastery of that the light of knowledge (prajna)284
Sutra III.6Its application is by stages285
Sutra III.7Compared to the previous means this tried is the direct means286
Sutra III.8Even that is an indirect means as regards unseeded (Yoga)287
Sutra III.9The inhibitive transformation of the mind is when extravertive samskara is overcome and the samskara of inhibition is predominant and mind itself is in a temporary state of inhibition288
Sutra III.10It has a peaceful flow, by reason of the samskara-s 289
Sutra III.11The destruction of the mind's depressiveness and rise of the its one-pointedness is the samadhi transformation290
Sutra III.12In that (samadhi) the sameness of the idea which has subsided and the newly arisen idea in the mind is its transformation of one- pointedness290
Sutra III.13By (analogy with) that are explained the transformations of dharma time-phase and basis (avastha) in the elements and in the senses291
Sutra III.14What confirms to the subsided uprisen and indeterminations dharma- is the dharma303
Sutra III.15Difference of sequence causes the differences of the changes306
Sutra III.16From samyama on the three changes knowledge of what is past and future309
Sutra III.17There is confusion from the mutual projection of word, meaning and idea on to each other. From samyama on their distinctness (comes) understanding of the cries of all beings310
Sutra III.18From direct perception of the samskara-s , knowledge of previous lives327
Sutra III.19(from direct perception through samyama)of his thought, knowledge of the mind of another328
Sutra III.20But not the subject of those ideas, because that was not the field of the samyama329
Sutra III.21From samyama on the form of the body its potentiality of being seen is nullified. Being disjoined from the light of the eye it disappears329
Sutra III.22Karma is rapid or slow. From samyama on it or on omens there comes foreknowledge of death330
Sutra III.23(From samyama) on friendliness and the others (compassion and goodwill sutra I.33) (there arise) powers331
Sutra III.24Powers like the power of an elephant (come from samyama) on them331
Sutra III.25By Projecting the light of supernormal radiant perception(I. 36) on to what is subtle hidden or remote (he comes to) knowledge of that 332
Sutra III.26From samyama on the sun, knowledge of the worlds332
Sutra III.27(from samyama) on the moon knowledge of the dispositions of the stars334
Sutra III.28(From samyama)on the pole star knowledge of their motions335
Sutra III.29On the navel circle knowledge of the plan of the body335
Sutra III.30At the pit of the throat cessation of hunger and thirst335
Sutra III.31On the tortoise nerve rigid steadiness336
Sutra III.32On the light in the head vision of the perfect ones336
Sutra III.33By the pratibha supernormal knowledge too (he knows) everything 336
Sutra III.34On the heart awareness of the mind337
Sutra III.35Experience is an idea which does not distinguish sattva and Purusa though they are absolutely separate; by samyama on what is for its own sake (distinct) from what is for the sake of another there comes knowledge of Purusa 337
Sutra III.36From the arise supernormal knowledge and hearing touch sight taste and awareness of events339
Sutra III.37They are obstacles in samadhi but perfections in the extravertive state339
6Glories (continued)
Sutra III.38From loosening of the cause of tying and awareness of how the mind moves the mind can enter another body340
Sutra III.39By mastering the upgoing vital current (udana) he passes untouched over water mud thorns and so an and at death he takes the upward course340
Sutra III.40From mastery of samana blazing light341
Sutra III.41From samyama on the relation between hearing and space divine hearing342
Sutra III.42From samyama on the relation between the body and space followed by identification in samadhi (samapatti) with the lightness of a thread he travels through space343
Sutra III.43The great bodiless is a mental process (vrtti) functioning exterior (to the body) and not imaginary; from this comes dwindling away of the covering of the light 343
Sutra III.44From samyama on their physical form inherence and purposefulness: conquest of the elements344
Sutra III.45From it (the samyama)manifest a set of eight powers like becoming minute and perfection of the body with freedom from impediment for its (bodily) attributes348
Sutra III.46The perfection of the body is grace splendour power and diamond hardness 350
Sutra III.47From samyama on their perception, essential nature I am ness inherence and purposefulness (comes)conquest of the senses 350
Sutra III.48From that speediness as of the mind independence of physical organs and conquest of nature351
Sutra III.49Having simply the knowledge that (mind-) sattva and Purusa are difference one has omnipotence over all beings and is omniscient352
Sutra III.50From Indifference to that too the seeds of imperfection are destroyed and there is Transcendental Aloneness553
Sutra III.51No reaction of attachment or pride in case of invitations from rulers of celestial realms for undesirable consequences follow354
7 Transcendental Aloneness
Sutra III.52From samyama on the instant and on the two sequences of instants comes knowledge born of discrimination356
Sutra III.53From this (knowledge) there is clear knowledge of two things (seemingly) equivalent because they cannot be distinguished by class characteristic or position358
Sutra III.54Knowledge born of discrimination having all times for its object is called Transcendent361
8Transcendental Aloneness
Sutra III.55When the (mind-) sattva is like Purusa in purity there is Transcendental aloneness. So it is362
1 Perfections
Sutra IV.1Perfections (siddhi) arise from birth or from drugs or from mantra- s or from tapas or from samadhi366
Sutra IV.2The transformation into another life is implemented by prakrti 367
Sutra IV.3The cause is not the impelling drive itself but it makes a breach in the retaining barrier of the natures as does a farmer (for irrigation) 367
Sutra IV.4The minds are projected from bare I-am-ness369
Sutra IV.5In the variety of activities, it is the one mind that simples the several minds369
Sutra IV.6Of those (minds with perfections)the mind whose perfections arise out of meditation (dhyana) has no karma-stock370
Sutra IV.7The karma of the yogin is neither white nor black; of the others, it is of three kinds 370
Sutra IV.8Therefore their consequent manifestation is of those samskara groups (vasana) that are compatible with it374
Sutra IV.9Because there is sameness of from of memory and samskara-s there is consequent succession between them even though separated by class and place and time376
Sutra IV.10They are beginningless because hope is enternal 377
Sutra IV.11They are held together by cause effect repository focal point When these cease they too cease379
Sutra IV.12What are past and future do actually exist but there is difference of time -phase in their dharma-s381
Sutra IV.13They are manifest or subtle and consist of the of guna-s 385
Sutra IV.14A thing is what it is by the fact of a unitary change387
4 Against Buddhism
(Sutra IV.14, continued)
Sutra IV.15Since there is difference of the minds while the object is the same the two must be distinct categories389
Sutra IV.16It is not dependent on a single mind for when it was not giving rise to valid cognition in that mind what would it be?392
Sutra IV.17According to whether the mind is coloured by it a thing is know or unknown394
Sutra IV.18To Him the Lord the mental processes are always known from the fact of the unchangeabitity of Purusa395
Sutra IV.19It (mind) is not self-illumining, because it is itself something perceived397
Sutra IV.20They cannot both be clearly ascertained at the same time399
Sutra IV.21If it is to be seen by another idea further and yet further ideas will be required. And there will be confusion of memories400
Sutra IV.22In assumption of its (the mind's) form on the part of the unmoving consciousness is awareness of the idea of the self402
Sutra IV.23Mind coloured by seer and seen has the various purposes404
Sutra IV.24Though it is a mélange of countless samskara-groups, it must exist for the purposes of another because it is a construct406
Sutra IV.25For him sees that One apart cessation of meditation on his own being408
Sutra IV.26Then the mind is inclined to discrimination and is borne on towards Aloneness409
Sutra IV.27At intervals in it other ideas arise from samskara-s409
Sutra IV.28The escape from these is like that described in the case of the taints410
Sutra IV.29For one who is through and through a man of discriminative knowledge but is not grasping over his meditation practice there comes about the samadhi called Raincloud of Dharma410
Sutra IV.30From that cessation of taints and karma-s411
Sutra IV.31Then with the infinity of knowledge free from all veiling taint the knowable comes to be but a trifle412
Sutra IV.32With that the guna-s have fulfilled their purpose and the succession of their changes comes to an end413
Sutra IV.33The succession is conjoined to each instant, (but) recognizable at the very end413
Sutra IV.34Transcendental Aloneness is withdrawal of the guna-s now without any purpose of purusa; or it is the establishment of the power-of -consciousness in its own nature417
(Salutations and colophon)418

Sample Pages

Add a review

Your email address will not be published *

For privacy concerns, please view our Privacy Policy

Post a Query

For privacy concerns, please view our Privacy Policy


Related Items