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Sculptures of Ganga-Yamuna Valley
Sculptures of Ganga-Yamuna Valley
Description

Title: Sculptures of Ganga-Yamuna Valley

Preface

The present work comprised the major part of my thesis entitled Sculptures of the Ganga-Yamuna Valley, accepted for the Degree of Philosophy at the University of Calcutta. I would like to record my deep sense of gratitude and respect in the memory of my great teacher late Professor S.K. Saraswati, under whose supervision, advice and suggestion the present work was carried out.

The study ventured to make a comprehensive and systematic survey of the medieval sculptures of the Ganga-Yamuna Valley region, very little work on which has been done before. Ganga-Yamuna Valley, the hub of Indian history and culture since the early times, also played a very important and interesting role in the early medieval and medieval phases of ancient India. Both from the qualitative and quantitative points of view the sculptural objects available from the region are no less insignificant. For obvious reasons it was not possible to incorporate all of them in the present work. The approach of my study was to make an objective analysis of the findings on an evolutionary plane. I am fully conscious of my limitations. Hence, I bear the entire responsibility for any lapses and shortcomings.

In the preparation of this work I have received help, advice and encouragement in various forms my friends and well-wishers. It is a pleasure to offer my warmest thanks to all of them, especially to Dr. A.K. Bhattacharyya of Calcutta University, Mr. M.A. Dhaky, Research Director, American Institute of Indian Studies, Benaras, Prof. B.N. Mukherjee of Calcutta University and Mrs. Raba Sarkar of Calcutta.

I would like to acknowledge not certainly in a formal way, the kindness and cooperation of the authorities of the different Muscusm.

For not only supplying me the necessary photographs for the illustrations in my work, but also providing me the proper facilities for the study of the objects in their respective collections or in the Stores. I am overwhelmed by the gesture and cooperation of Mr. V.A. Nambiar, Administrative Director, American Institute of Indian Studies, Benaras by providing me the prints of the photographs from their Archives.

Last but not the least in importance, I am extremely grateful to Mr. Shakti Malik of Abhinav Publications, New Delhi, whose interest and initiative practically made the publication possible.

Introduction

Some work has been done on the stylistic evolution of Indian sculpture from the earliest times upto the Gupta period, but very little is available on sculpture of post-Gupta age. Chapters on medieval sculpture are usually included in books on Indian sculpture, but none of them can be considered exhaustive. The post-Gupta, pre-medieval and medieval phases of Indian history are characterized by the growth of awareness about regionalism in political as well as culture and arts. As a consequence, the artistic movements in the different regional areas gradually fanned apart, leading to the emergence of local styles. In order to understand the basic impulses and surges in the evolution of cultural trends through the post-Gupta epoch it is necessary to study regional styles in detail and depth. Some such study, however, has been accomplished in Pala-Sena Sculpture, Eastern Indian school of medieval sculpture, Cola sculpture and the art of the Rastrakutas etc. But no serious effort seems to have been made for unraveling the varied wealth of most other well marked regional schools.

Medieval sculpture of the Ganga-Yamuna Valley may be considered one such manifestation of a regional style, indeed of startling significance. Kramrisch, Ray, and Saraswati, however, laid the foundations of such a work upon which a detailed study can now be attempted. The works mentioned above have been generally useful for understanding the distinctions between one style and the other in the total Indian perspective. Nevertheless, a comprehensive study of the different regional styles could considerably enlarge our knowledge on Indian sculpture of the medieval epoch. An attempt, therefore, has been made in the following pages specifically to study the Ganga-Yamuna Valley style of medieval sculpture, historically tracing the development of the style.

From the Jacket:

Stylistically Classical Indian Gupta sculpture admitted a common denominator till the end of the sixth and the beginning of the seventh century A.D. This was felt throughout the sub-continent in different degrees, according to the strength of the regional trends. The gradual thinning down or the decline of the Classical Gupta concept was followed by an emphasis on the regional factors until they dominated over the former. The Ganga-Yamuna Valley, the hub of Indian history and culture since the early times, played an important part in the medieval phase. From the point of view of cultural history, especially in the field of art, middle of the eighth century may be considered as the beginning of the medieval phase of Indian sculpture.

The origin and evolution of the medieval Indian sculpture of the Ganga-Yamuna Valley has been studied from the viewpoint of its nearness to and distance from the Classical Gupta trend on the one hand and also a identify the local or regional idiom which emerged during the period on the other.

The present study is the first ever full-length discussion on the stylistic analysis of the medieval sculptures of the Ganga-Yamuna Valley region. With this object in view a wide and extensive survey has been made from a fairly large number of sculptures available from the region. The study has brought out the importance of the region as a centre of significant art activity in the medieval phase when some interesting and purposeful art forms were carved by the creative artists of the age. The approach of the study is an objective assessment of the sculptures in the evolutionary direction, covering the chronological horizons, which range in dates from the middle of the eighth to the twelfth century A.D.

The analytical and critical study on the subject brings out the stylistic features and aesthetic brilliance of the sculptures of the Ganga-Yamuna Valley of the medieval phase and thereby helps to indicate its distinct position in the arena of medieval Indian sculpture.

Of the large number of sculptural remains available in this region the book contains 96 selective illustrations. Besides, it includes a select bibliography and an outline map of the region.

About the Author:

Dr. Mihir Mohan Mukhopadhyay, M.A. (Double), Ph.D. of the University of Calcutta is a Reader in History in the North Bengal University. He is in his teaching career about sixteen years, prior to which he was attached to the Centre of Advanced Study, Department of Ancient Indian History and Culture, Calcutta University and a Research Assistant in the American Institute of Indian Studies, Varanasi, an institute of international repute. Dr. Mukhopadhyay has contributed more than a dozen research articles to different reputed Indian journals. He is also associated with a number of learned and academic bodies and institutions.

 

CONTENTS

 

  Preface vii
  Acknowledgements ix
  Abbreviations xi
  List of Illustrations xiii
I. INTRODUCTION 1
II. TOPOGRAPHY  
  Historical Background 4
  Popular Amusements, Recreations, Dress and Jewellery 11
  Economic Background 12
  Religious Background 14
  Background of Pre-Medieval Art of the Ganga-Yamuna Valley 17
III. EVOLUTION OF THE GANGA-YAMUNA VALLEY STYLE c. A.D. 750-1200 22
  Dated and Dateable Gupta and Medieval Sculpture of the Ganga-Yamuna Valley 23
  Pre-Medieval and Medieval Sculptures 32
IV. A RESUME OF THE STYLISTIC EVOLUTION 66
  Epilogue 71
  Select Bibliography 75
  Index 83
  Map (Ganga-Yamuna Valley) 87
  Plates  

Sample Pages












Sculptures of Ganga-Yamuna Valley

Item Code:
IDE407
Cover:
Hardcover
Edition:
1984
Publisher:
ISBN:
817017189x
Language:
English
Size:
11.2" X 9.0"
Pages:
101 (B & W Illus: 96)
Other Details:
Weight of the Book: 788 gms
Price:
$33.00   Shipping Free
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Title: Sculptures of Ganga-Yamuna Valley

Preface

The present work comprised the major part of my thesis entitled Sculptures of the Ganga-Yamuna Valley, accepted for the Degree of Philosophy at the University of Calcutta. I would like to record my deep sense of gratitude and respect in the memory of my great teacher late Professor S.K. Saraswati, under whose supervision, advice and suggestion the present work was carried out.

The study ventured to make a comprehensive and systematic survey of the medieval sculptures of the Ganga-Yamuna Valley region, very little work on which has been done before. Ganga-Yamuna Valley, the hub of Indian history and culture since the early times, also played a very important and interesting role in the early medieval and medieval phases of ancient India. Both from the qualitative and quantitative points of view the sculptural objects available from the region are no less insignificant. For obvious reasons it was not possible to incorporate all of them in the present work. The approach of my study was to make an objective analysis of the findings on an evolutionary plane. I am fully conscious of my limitations. Hence, I bear the entire responsibility for any lapses and shortcomings.

In the preparation of this work I have received help, advice and encouragement in various forms my friends and well-wishers. It is a pleasure to offer my warmest thanks to all of them, especially to Dr. A.K. Bhattacharyya of Calcutta University, Mr. M.A. Dhaky, Research Director, American Institute of Indian Studies, Benaras, Prof. B.N. Mukherjee of Calcutta University and Mrs. Raba Sarkar of Calcutta.

I would like to acknowledge not certainly in a formal way, the kindness and cooperation of the authorities of the different Muscusm.

For not only supplying me the necessary photographs for the illustrations in my work, but also providing me the proper facilities for the study of the objects in their respective collections or in the Stores. I am overwhelmed by the gesture and cooperation of Mr. V.A. Nambiar, Administrative Director, American Institute of Indian Studies, Benaras by providing me the prints of the photographs from their Archives.

Last but not the least in importance, I am extremely grateful to Mr. Shakti Malik of Abhinav Publications, New Delhi, whose interest and initiative practically made the publication possible.

Introduction

Some work has been done on the stylistic evolution of Indian sculpture from the earliest times upto the Gupta period, but very little is available on sculpture of post-Gupta age. Chapters on medieval sculpture are usually included in books on Indian sculpture, but none of them can be considered exhaustive. The post-Gupta, pre-medieval and medieval phases of Indian history are characterized by the growth of awareness about regionalism in political as well as culture and arts. As a consequence, the artistic movements in the different regional areas gradually fanned apart, leading to the emergence of local styles. In order to understand the basic impulses and surges in the evolution of cultural trends through the post-Gupta epoch it is necessary to study regional styles in detail and depth. Some such study, however, has been accomplished in Pala-Sena Sculpture, Eastern Indian school of medieval sculpture, Cola sculpture and the art of the Rastrakutas etc. But no serious effort seems to have been made for unraveling the varied wealth of most other well marked regional schools.

Medieval sculpture of the Ganga-Yamuna Valley may be considered one such manifestation of a regional style, indeed of startling significance. Kramrisch, Ray, and Saraswati, however, laid the foundations of such a work upon which a detailed study can now be attempted. The works mentioned above have been generally useful for understanding the distinctions between one style and the other in the total Indian perspective. Nevertheless, a comprehensive study of the different regional styles could considerably enlarge our knowledge on Indian sculpture of the medieval epoch. An attempt, therefore, has been made in the following pages specifically to study the Ganga-Yamuna Valley style of medieval sculpture, historically tracing the development of the style.

From the Jacket:

Stylistically Classical Indian Gupta sculpture admitted a common denominator till the end of the sixth and the beginning of the seventh century A.D. This was felt throughout the sub-continent in different degrees, according to the strength of the regional trends. The gradual thinning down or the decline of the Classical Gupta concept was followed by an emphasis on the regional factors until they dominated over the former. The Ganga-Yamuna Valley, the hub of Indian history and culture since the early times, played an important part in the medieval phase. From the point of view of cultural history, especially in the field of art, middle of the eighth century may be considered as the beginning of the medieval phase of Indian sculpture.

The origin and evolution of the medieval Indian sculpture of the Ganga-Yamuna Valley has been studied from the viewpoint of its nearness to and distance from the Classical Gupta trend on the one hand and also a identify the local or regional idiom which emerged during the period on the other.

The present study is the first ever full-length discussion on the stylistic analysis of the medieval sculptures of the Ganga-Yamuna Valley region. With this object in view a wide and extensive survey has been made from a fairly large number of sculptures available from the region. The study has brought out the importance of the region as a centre of significant art activity in the medieval phase when some interesting and purposeful art forms were carved by the creative artists of the age. The approach of the study is an objective assessment of the sculptures in the evolutionary direction, covering the chronological horizons, which range in dates from the middle of the eighth to the twelfth century A.D.

The analytical and critical study on the subject brings out the stylistic features and aesthetic brilliance of the sculptures of the Ganga-Yamuna Valley of the medieval phase and thereby helps to indicate its distinct position in the arena of medieval Indian sculpture.

Of the large number of sculptural remains available in this region the book contains 96 selective illustrations. Besides, it includes a select bibliography and an outline map of the region.

About the Author:

Dr. Mihir Mohan Mukhopadhyay, M.A. (Double), Ph.D. of the University of Calcutta is a Reader in History in the North Bengal University. He is in his teaching career about sixteen years, prior to which he was attached to the Centre of Advanced Study, Department of Ancient Indian History and Culture, Calcutta University and a Research Assistant in the American Institute of Indian Studies, Varanasi, an institute of international repute. Dr. Mukhopadhyay has contributed more than a dozen research articles to different reputed Indian journals. He is also associated with a number of learned and academic bodies and institutions.

 

CONTENTS

 

  Preface vii
  Acknowledgements ix
  Abbreviations xi
  List of Illustrations xiii
I. INTRODUCTION 1
II. TOPOGRAPHY  
  Historical Background 4
  Popular Amusements, Recreations, Dress and Jewellery 11
  Economic Background 12
  Religious Background 14
  Background of Pre-Medieval Art of the Ganga-Yamuna Valley 17
III. EVOLUTION OF THE GANGA-YAMUNA VALLEY STYLE c. A.D. 750-1200 22
  Dated and Dateable Gupta and Medieval Sculpture of the Ganga-Yamuna Valley 23
  Pre-Medieval and Medieval Sculptures 32
IV. A RESUME OF THE STYLISTIC EVOLUTION 66
  Epilogue 71
  Select Bibliography 75
  Index 83
  Map (Ganga-Yamuna Valley) 87
  Plates  

Sample Pages












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