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History & Culture of Khijjingakotta: Under the Bhanjas (An Old and Rare Book)

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Item Code: HAL014
Author: Arjun Joshi
Publisher: Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.
Language: English
Edition: 1983
ISBN: 0706914333
Pages: 171 (Throughout B/W Illustrations with Maps)
Other Details 9.50 X 6.50 inch
Weight 440 gm
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Book Description
About the Book

The history and culture of Khijjingakotta constitutes an important aspect of the history and culture of Orissa, in particular, and India in general. The period 850-1050 A.D. saw an era of great vitality in Orissa concentrated in the ancient city of Khijjingakotta, an extensive territory comprising the present Mayurbhanj, Keonjhar and Balasore districts of Orissa.
Magnificent temples and monasteries were built, art prospered, and trade flourished, as is obvious from the numerous Roman gold coins found there.
Khijjingakotta contains important archaeological remains, the most important of which are three stone temples, two ancient sites, and about forty tanks of various dimensions. This book is the first attempt to make a systematic study of the history and archaeology of this period of Orissa's history. In addition to archaeological evidence, original source material in the form of copper plate inscriptions, Gupta and Kushan coins, palm leaf manuscripts and recently discovered antiquities have also been examined.
In the light of this information is traced the historical background, genealogy, administrative system, socio-economic conditions, religious conditions, and the art and architecture of the Bhanja kings of Khijjingakotta.

About the Author

After a brilliant academic career, Dr Arjun Joshi was appointed Curator of the Orissa State Museum in 1957. In 1965 he took over as Superintendent of Museums in Orissa. Dr Joshi was appointed Deputy Director of Cultural Affairs in 1969.
He has been deeply involved in the cultural development of Orissa, and among his valuable contributions has been the organisation of the Orissa State Museum, the reorganisation of the State Archaeology Department, and the conservation of an important group of temples in Orissa.
Dr Joshi has several publications to his credit, and he is at present working on a "History of Orissa."


The history and culture of Khijjingakotta under the Bhanjas deserves careful study as it constitutes an important aspect of the history and culture of Orissa as well as of Eastern India. During the Bhanja rule (circa A.D. 850-1050 A.D.) Kihjjingakotta was a power to be reckoned with, and well known for its glorious achievements. The city of Khijjingakotta was not only the main centre of authority, it was also a great centre of art, architecture, culture and religious activities over a few centuries in medieval times. But very little research work has been done on this important ruling dynasty of Orissa.
Sri Pratap Chandra Ghosh first published two copper-plate inscriptions from Bamanghati in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1871, and brought to light the Bhanjas of Khijjingakotta. Sri Narendranath Vasu did explorations in Mayurbhanja and published an Archaeological Survey of Mayurbhanja in 1911. Subsequently several copper-plate inscriptions have been edited in different journals by Sri H.P. Sastri, Sri Binayak Misra, Dr. R. C. Majumdar, Dr. K. C. Panigrahi and others. Dr. Majumdar has also published an "Outline of the History of the Bhanja Kings of Orissa" in the series of Dacca University studies. The late R.P. Chanda had under- taken the excavation and conservation of Khijjinga monuments and published his reports.
But all these works were in the nature of preliminary investigations on the relics of Khijjingakotta. I have, therefore, made a humble effort here to examine the copper- plates, sculpture, temples, coins, monuments, archaeological sites, and recently discovered antiquities, hoping thereby to give a fuller picture of the history and culture of Khijjingakotta under the Bhanjas.
I would like to offer my sincere gratitude to Dr Nabin Kumar Sahu, Professor and Head of the Department of History, Sambalpur University, for encouraging me to undertake this research. He was also kind enough to go through the whole manuscript, making valuable suggestions and comments. This work could not have been completed without his ungrudging help and guidance at every stage.
Sr A.N. Tiwari, IAS., Secretary and Director, Tourism and Cultural Affairs Department and Additional Secretary-cum- Director of Home (P.R.) Department, Government of Orissa who was keenly interested in my research work was a source of encouragement and inspiration for me. I take this opportunity to express my debt to him.
I am thankful to my colleagues Padmasri S.N. Rajguru, Ex- Epigraphist, Orissa State Museum, and Padmasri Paramananda Acharya, Ex-Superintendent, Orissa State Museum, for their valuable suggestions.
I am also grateful to eminent scholars like Dr. M. N. Das, Prof. of History, Utkal University, Dr. K. C. Panigrahi, Retired Professor of History, Berhampur University, Dr. K.S. Behera, Reader in History, Utkal University, and the late Dr. Nihar Ranjan Ray of Calcutta for giving me valuable suggestions for field study.
I am immensely thankful to the Director General of Archaeology in India, New Delhi; Director, National Museum, New Delhi; Director of Indian Museums, Calcutta, and the Superintendent of the Orissa State Museum for permitting me to use the reference libraries under their control.

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