Hindustani music, one of the two main types of South Asian traditional music, is practiced primarily in the northern parts of the subcontinent, where Indo-Aryan dialects are spoken. Northern India imparts to the south the utilization of ragas (melodic systems for ad-lib and music composition), the cadenced standards of tala (cyclic metric designs sometimes of extraordinary intricacy), and the act of nonmetric, musically "free" impromptu creation. Although vocal music assumes a significant part, instrumental music is more significant in Hindustani music than it is in Karnatak.
The most conspicuous instruments of Hindustani music are the sitar (a long-necked lute with around 30 melodic, drone, and thoughtful strings), sarod (a short-necked unfretted lute with thoughtful and drone strings), sarangi (a bowed fiddle), shehnai (an oboelike wind instrument), tabla (a bunch of two drums played by one performer, the right-hand drum tuned), and tambura (a huge long-necked lute with four strings, utilized exclusively to play the supporting drone, a solitary rehashed harmony). The significant vocal structures or styles related to Hindustani traditional music are dhrupad, khyal, and tarana. Light classical structures incorporate dhamar, trivat, chaiti, kajari, tappa, tap-khyal, ashtapadis, thumri, dadra, ghazal, and bhajan; these don't comply with the thorough guidelines of classical music. The main destinations of Hindustani music in the 21st century are the urban communities of Delhi, Kolkata (Calcutta), Varanasi, and Mumbai (Bombay), more modest urban communities with regal courts, like Jaipur, Agra, and Gwalior assumed a significant part. In the mid-21st century, the specialists of Hindustani music included Ravi Shankar, Ali Akbar Khan, and Bismillah Khan.
Q1. What does a usual Hindustani classical music performance look like?
A regular Hindustani classical music exhibition, starts with a long, nonmetric impromptu creation (alapa, or alap) by the vocalist or melodic soloist, trailed by jor, or extemporization without metric cycle however with a detectable pulse, and in the end by the comparative yet quicker jhala. A composed piece follows, which is performed with ad-libbed varieties — most ordinarily khayal (a beautiful structure) in vocal music and gat, a short, musically distinct subject, in instrumental music. Here, the soloist is joined by the percussionist on tabla, and the ad-libs frequently include different sorts of virtuosic cadenced contests and collaboration.
Q2. How did the rule of the Delhi Sultanate affect Hindustani Classical music?
The introduction of Islamic rule under the Delhi Sultanate and later the Mughal Empire over northern India caused significant social exchange. Progressively, performers got support in the courts of the new rulers, who began taking a rising interest in local Indian melodic structures. While the earlier generations might have been established in social customs outside India, they slowly embraced numerous perspectives from the Hindu culture in their realms. This aided the combination of Hindu and Muslim plans to deliver new types of melodic unions like qawwali and khyal. The most compelling performer of the Delhi Sultanate period was Amir Khusrau, a writer in Persian, Turkish, Arabic, as well as Braj Bhasha.
He is credited with organizing a few parts of Hindustani music and presenting a few ragas like Yaman Kalyan, Zeelaf, and Sarpada. He made six classes of music: khyal, tarana, Naqsh, Gul, Qaul, and Qalbana. Various instruments (like the sitar) were additionally added to Hindustani classical music in his time. After the disintegration of the Mughal realm, the support of music went on in more modest royal realms like Awadh, Patiala, and Banaras, bringing about the variety of styles that is today known as gharanas. Numerous performer families got huge awards of land which made them independent, essentially for a couple of ages (for example the Sham Chaurasia Gharana). In the meantime, the Bhakti and Sufi practices proceeded to create and associate with the different gharanas and gatherings.
Q3. What makes Hindustani
They are as follows
beauty of Indian
music is in having such heavenly melodies.
is the music from the soul, born from the souls of a thousand different
cultures that chose India as their home. It has been regarded as food for our
classical music has a spiritual undercurrent to it.
lyrics of these songs are profound expressions of human experience and
They do not have any harmony.
can be composed.
is mostly in unwritten form.
melodies are created based on ragas.
We have a wide range of rhythms in India.
Q4. Why is Hindustani
classical music important?
Indian classical music, due to its organic origins,
has the potential to bring us closer to our inner being. Besides
mood-transforming powers, Indian classical music has powerful effects on a
person's ability to be mindful, as it makes us more emotionally aware. HC Music
expresses the deepest thoughts of our civilization. Through their music,
composers paint a picture of the society and times in which they lived.
Classical music acts as a bridge between cultures that leads us to a better
understanding of each other. It minimizes Stress, strain, and depression, makes
Blood Pressure Normal, Improves the Presence of the Mind, minimizes the Risk of
Epilepsy, and improves Memory.
Q5. What are the two main
elements of Hindustani music?
Indian classical music has two foundational
and tala. The raga, based on a varied repertoire of swara (notes including
microtones), forms the fabric of a deeply intricate melodic structure, while
the tala measures the time cycle. The raga gives an artist a palette to build
the melody from sounds, while the tala provides them with a creative framework
for rhythmic improvisation using time. In Indian classical music, the space
between the notes is often more important than the notes themselves, and it
traditionally eschews Western classical concepts such as harmony, counterpoint,
chords, or modulation.
Q6. Which is the most ancient
style of Hindustani classical music?
Dhrupad is a genre in HC music from the Indian
subcontinent. It is the oldest and grandest form of major vocal styles
associated with Hindustani classical music, Haveli Sangeet of Pushtimarg
Sampraday, and also related to the South Indian Carnatic tradition. Dhrupad is
an old style of singing, traditionally performed by male singers. It is
performed with a tambura and a pakhawaj as instrumental accompaniments. Dhrupad
has survived until today in its original form. The nature of Dhrupad music is
spiritual. Some other ancient forms are:
Khayal - Khayal means
Thumri - Thumri originated in the
eastern part of Uttar Pradesh.
Tappa - Tappa developed around
the 18th century.
Q7. Which is Hindustani
North Indian classical music is called Hindustani.
Hindustani derives from the Old Hindi dialect of Western Uttar Pradesh and
Delhi areas. Its literary standard forms-Modern Standard Hindi and Modern
Standard Urdu—use different scripts. Hindi itself derives its name from the
shortened form, Hind (India). The music developed with Sanskrit language
scripts in itself and through Vedic traditions. It is also known as shastriya
sangeet. It is played with instruments like the violin, sitar, and sarod. The
major vocal forms or styles associated with Hindustani classical music are
dhrupad, khyal, and Tarana. Light classical forms include dhamar, trivat,
chaiti, kajari, tappa, tap-khyal, ashtapadis, thumri, dadra, ghazal, and
bhajan; these do not adhere to the rigorous rules of classical music.
Q8. Who is the father of
Samveda gandharvveda Bharatmuni, Saint Haridas ji,
Karnataka music great Purenderdas ji are considered the father of Indian music.
Artists such as Dalptaram, Mirabai, Brahmanand Swami, and Premanand Swami
revitalized classical Hindustani music in the 16-18th century. Around 1900,
Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande consolidated the musical structures of Hindustani
classical music, called ragas, into a few thaats based on their notes. Tansen
is the founder of Hindustani music. Tansen's style and innovations inspired
many, and many modern gharanas link themselves to his lineage. Pandit Ravi
Shankar is India's most esteemed and legendary classical musician. Pandit Ravi
Shankar has made a major contribution to popularizing Indian classical music in
the West through his association with The Beatles.
Q9. What is the
characteristic of Hindustani music?
music is characterized by microtones (shruti), notes (or swara), ornamentations
(or alankar), melodies improvised from grammar (or raga), and rhythmic patterns
used in percussion (or tala). The foremost thing that differentiates it from
other types of music is its emphasis on going within. Hindustani music uses
Sampoorna Scale (with all 7 notes) to describe Janak Thaat or Raga to make
Janya Raga. It also uses a Tanpura or Drone with one or two notes to signify
Pitch and base in the Raga version. Hindustani classical music is for the soul
and western music is for the mind. These are special characteristics of Indian
music. The practitioners believe it to be a way to connect to god or a higher
Q10. What is the difference
between Hindustani and Carnatic music?
The key differences between Hindustani and Carnatic
music are: Hindustani music is raga based while Carnatic is Kriti-based.
Hindustani stresses pure notes versus the gamaka-based Carnatic ragas. Raga
essays (alapanas) are elaborated from note to note in Hindustani and from
phrase to phrase in Carnatic. While Hindustani music originated in the Vedic
period, Carnatic music originated during the Bhakti movement. The obvious point
of difference here is that Hindustani music, unlike Carnatic music, comprises
two genres (three if we include instrumental music) that differ in
presentation, the repertoire of compositions and, one might say, intention. And
these genres simply go by the name of the composition they predominantly use.
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