The Iconography of Architectural Plans

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Item Code: IDD165
Author: Fredrick W. Bunce
Publisher: D. K. Printworld Pvt. Ltd.
Language: English
Edition: 2002
ISBN: 812460200X
Pages: 591
Cover: Hardcover
(b & w plates: 176, figures: 224)
Other Details 11.4" X 9.0"
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Book Description
From the Jacket:

Over the rolling centuries, Buddhism and Hinduism, two of the world's oldest sustained faiths, came to evolve a complex, yet precisely defining, iconic language: not just for figural representations, but for the architectural plans of their temples and monuments as well - a language that allows interpretations of geometric proportions. Here is the first ever effort to brilliantly unravel the iconic idiom involved in the architectural plans of Buddhist and Hindu temples and monuments of India and the "Indianized" States of Southeast Asia.

With his indepth surveys of diverse 'Buddhic' and 'Hindic' temples in India, Sri Lanka, Java (Indonesia), Kambuja, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, and even Malayasia, the author shows how the basic element in their architecture: the PLAN - conceived within a cosmological framework - was fraught with iconographic import and input, necessitating the guidance of authoritative compendia, like the Manasara and the Mayamata, the arcane knowledge of the sthapati (priest-architect), and many other complex procedures which all were steeped in symbolism. In analyzing the architectural plans of these temples, Professor Bunce also highlights the various related iconographic considerations, like orientation, basic geometric forms, construction methods, rules and ratios, the non-congregational necessity, the high place as a consideration as well as the cave - besides a number of viable "influences" which exert various amounts of control, e.g., textual, philosophic/theologic, numerological, astrological/astronomical, 'regionality' and, most importantly, the mandala.

Generously supported by visual material comprising as many as 400 figures and line-drawings, Professor Bunce's book is veritably a monumental, off-beat exercise of enormous interest to iconographers as well as the historians/specialists of South and Southeast Asian temple architecture.

About the Author:

Fredrick W. Bunce, a Ph.D. (Comparative Arts) from the Ohio University Athens, Ohio, USA, is a cultural historian and international repute. Now Professor Emeritus of Art, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana, he has lectured at learned forums and published on a variety of art-related themes. And has held many a solo exhibition at different art galleries, art museums and universities; besides his participation in the artist's guild/faculty/other ventures of the kind.

A scholar with varied intellectual / research concerns - notwithstanding his specializations in iconography, particularly Oriental and Buddhist Arts, Professor Bunce has been legitimately honoured with certain notable awards / commendations, and is listed in Who's Who in American Art and also the International Biographical Dictinary: 1980-present. Among his published books are: Encyclopaedia of Buddhist Deities (2 Vols); Encyclopaedia of Hindu Deities (3 vols.); Dictionary of Buddhist and Hindu Iconography; and Yantra of Deities and their Numerological Foundations, all published by D. K. Printworld.

List of Paltesxvii
List of Figuresxxi
Introduction - Architectural Iconography1
    The Basics of Form5
    Philosophic and Theological Foundations15
    Astrology / Astronomy30
    Additional Iconic Concerns31
    The Mandala35
        Magic Squares Mandalas35
        Vastu-purusha Mandala40
        Manduka Mandala42
        Paramasayika Mandala44
        Manduka Mandala, Circular46
        Vajrayana Mandala48
        Stupa, Symbolism and Numerology52
        Gyantse Kumbum, Gyantse, Tibet56
        Garbh-Griha Plan58
        Ancillary Shrine Plan60
        Temple Plan62

India and Sri Lanka67
    Stupa I, Sanchi, India70
    Thuparama Dagoba, Sri Lanka72
    Ruvanveli Dagoba, Sri Lanka76
    Chaitya Hall, Karli, India78
    Buddhist Cave-Monastery #2, Ajanta, India82
    Ladh Khan, Aihole, India86
    Durga Temple, Aihole, India90
    Shiva Temple, Indor, India94
    Subrahmanya Temple, Manjeri, India98
    Kilatali Shiva Temple, Thiruvanchikula, India102
    Vatadage, Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka104
    Tivanka Pilimage (Lankatilaka), Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka110
    Brahmeshvar Temple, Bhuvaneshvar, India114
    Keshva Temple, Somnathpur, India118
    Garden Pavilion, Kotilal Fort, Delhi, India124

Java (Indonesia)129
    Borobudur, Java132
    Chandi Lumbung, Prambananm, Java140
    Chandi Sewu, Prambananm, Java144
    Loro Jonggrang, Prambananm, Java150
    Chandi Sari, Prambananm, Java156
    Chandi Djago, Malang, Java160
    Chandi Panataran Sanctuary, Kediri, Java164

Khmer (Kambuja)169
    Preach Ko, Roluos172
    Bakong, Roluos176
    Bakheng (Mount Ensemble), Angkor180
    Ta Keo Shrine, Angkor186
    Phimai Prasat, Thailand192
    Banteay Samre Temple, Angkor196
    Baphuon, Angkor200
    Angkor Wat, Angkor206
    Bayon, Angkor Thom, Angkor214

Pagan (Myanmar [Burma])223
    Nat-Hlaung-Kyaung, Pagan226
    Nan-Hpaya, Pagan230
    Myin-Pya-Gu, Pagan234
    Shwe-Zigon Pagoda, Pagan238
    Naga-Yon, Pagan242
    Ananda Temple, Pagan246
    That-Byin-Ngu, Pagan252
    Dhamma-Yan-Gyi, Pagan258
    Gawdaw-Palin, Pagan262
    Myinkaba Kubyauk-Nge, Pagan266
    Bogyoke-Mi Kubyauk, Pagan270
    Dhamma-Yazila, Pagan274
    Mingala-zeidi, Pagan278
    Pentagonal Temple (Pancha-Buddhas) (Near Mingalazedi Stupa), Pagan282
    Paya-Thon-Zu, Pagan284

Lanna Tai, Sukhothai, Ayutthaya & Rattanakosin (Thailand)289
    Chedi Wat Kukut, Lamphun292
    Chedi Wat Chang Lom, Si Satchanalai296
    Wat Phra Chao Phanan Choeng, Ayutthaya300
    Wat Mahathat, Sukhothai304
    Wat Phra Si Rattana Mahathat, Ayutthaya310
    Wat Phra Ram, Ayutthaya314
    Wat Ratchaburana, Ayutthaya318
    Wat Chedi Chet Yot, Chiang Mai322
    Wat Phra Si Sanphet, Ayutthaya326
    Chedi Wat Phukhao Thong, Ayutthaya330
    Wat Chai Watthanaram, Ayutthaya334
    Wat Phra Chetuphon, Bangkok338
    Lohaprasad, Wat Theptidaram, Bangkok344

Champa (Viet Nam)351
    Pho-hai Shrine, Phan-thiet352
    Khuong-my Shrine, n. Hoi-an354
    Dong-Duong Monastery356

Postscriptus: Malaysia361
    Masjid Terengkera, Malacca362
    Masjid Kampung Laut, Kelantan366
    Masjid Kampung Kling, Malacca368
    Masjid Kampung Hulu, Malacca370



Appendix A

Appendix B

Appendix C

Appendix D



Addendum (That Luang, Vientiane, Lao)


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