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Indian Art and Culture (A Valuable Creation for UPSC and State PCS Exams)

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Item Code: NAP930
Author: Anurag Kumar & Chandramohan Jha
Publisher: Arihant Publication India Limited
Language: English
ISBN: 9789350944844
Pages: 324
Other Details 9.0 X 6.00 inch
Weight 400 gm
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Shipped to 153 countries
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More than 1M+ customers worldwide
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100% Made in India
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Book Description
An Introduction


Art and culture are two terms, but they are interrelated to each other directly and indirectly. They reflect the speciality of any nation. The art represent an outlet of expression that is usually influenced by culture and which in turn helps to change culture. Painting, sculpture, architecture, literature, music, dance are the main art forms which have been around since the beginning of humankind. They have the most obvious connection with our ancestors, with the first truly human inhabitants of this planet. It is necessary to understand different aspects and concepts related to art and culture before going to study the subjects.


Art is a subjective concept and it has no unanimously accepted definition. We can say that art is the power, skill, ability and talent an individual possesses to express himself or herself. Art is simply your acquired skill to make another person know and understand, what you think and how you feel. "Art is just another word for expression." In context of Indian culture, word 'kala' is of Sanskrit origin, which means 'art'. As per Sahitya Tarang, "Art gives soothing, sweet, beautiful and pleasurable experience." In Shiva Sutra Vimarshini Keshemaraj explains art as "the expression which improves the image or experience of an object."

Characteristics of Art

Art has the following characteristics

  • In art more emphasis is given to thought and expression as compared to language.
  • Art has its own language which consists of forms and signs.
  • Art is inclusive and its roots are included in it.
  • Art denotes universalism and unity of mankind, it is a powerful tool for developing such relationship.
  • Art incorporates the infinite and continuous reflection of human spirit.
Classification of Art

In India, the first reference of classification of art is mentioned in the Natyashastra of Bharata Muni. The exact chronology of Natyashastra is not known, but it is estimated to be compiled between 5th to 1st century BCE. Before this the word 'art' was included in 'architecture' of the country. Applied and fine arts are included in the 'architecture' sections of Vedas and Samhitas. As per Bharata Muni, 'art' is an independent stream which includes fine arts along with other forms of art. There are three departments in art which are as follow.

1. Visual Art

2. Performing Art

3. Literary Art

Art is also sometimes divided into two broad categories of applied art and fine art.

Applied Art It is the application of design and aesthetics to objects of everyday use e.g. decorating a table, lamp, vase ere would be considered applied art. Interior design, fashion design, industrial design etc are all branches of applied art.

Fine Art

It is tile art, which is developed primarily for aesthetics, pleasure or concept. It does not need to have any practical application. Architecture, painting, sculpture, music, poetry etc are all branches of fine art.

Fine art has been classified into five phases which are as follow.

  1. Architecture Under this buildings, houses, forts, religious places, bridges and darns etc are considered.
  2. Painting Art of drawing humans, plants, animals and natural figures are considered under 'painting.'
  3. Sculpture It deals with the art of deciding shape and forms of the objects. Music It is an art form which uses sound, both vocal and instrumental having different styles.
  4. Poetry It is a form of art that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language e.g. sound symbolism etc.

    Indian art is an essential component of Indian culture. It acts as the link and carrier of Indian culture to generations. Human relations, situations and different expressions are highlighted by the Indian art.

    Not only the Indian architecture and techniques are the world famous, but also they are lively and expressive. Such excellence in arts keeps both the artist and audience abreast with supreme experience. Indian art is unsurpassed in transmitting the spiritual contents into their plastic form.

    Characteristics of Indian Art.

    • Indian art has the following characteristics.
    • Indian art is known for its symbolism. Since, Hindu Gods and Goddesses have human bodies, a set of symbolisms are used to identify them and describe their nature.
    • Indian art includes a lot of religious elements. Religion has been an important part of Indian life and most art including literature have religious elements to them.
    • Indian art is united with architecture. Often we will find that sculpture, painting, literature are integrated with the Indian architectural elements. It helps to aid the devotees in their worship.
    • Indian art is also described as the most sensuous and erotic in the world. There is a lot of decoration in the art forms and the human bodies are often in an idealized form.

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