A Peep into Yaksagana and Sanskrit Dramaturgy

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Item Code: IDG810
Author: Dr. G.S. Hegde
Publisher: Parimal Publication Pvt. Ltd.
Language: English
Edition: 2003
ISBN: 8171102210
Pages: 82 [63 Line Drawings in B/W, 52 Illustrations in B/W and in Colour]
Cover: Hardcover
Other Details 8.7" X 5.7"
Weight 300 gm
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Book Description


I am happy to write these few lines in response to Dr. G. S. Hegde's request to write a foreword to his book "A Peep into Yaksagana and Sanskrit Dramaturgy. " Dr. G. S. Hegde has made a deep study of the primary literary material on the Yaksagana. His monograph contains the results of this study. He has identified the manuscripts of the literary genere Yaksagana and he rightly distinguished it from the contemporary performance of the Yaksagana, the theatre form. He makes comparisons of the genere with Sanskrit theatre and points at the similarities and dissimilarities. He takes into account the views of scholars like Dr. V. Raghavan and lucidily gives his own views.

All in all, this is an significant addition to the meager literature on the Yaksagana in English notwithstanding the monumental work of the late Shri Shivram Karanth in this field. I give him my good wishes.


The book A PEEP INTO YAKSAGANA AND SANSKRIT DRAMATURGY is a compilation of papers presented by the author in different seminars during the past ten years. My friends and well wishers asked me as to why I do not bring all these particulars in a book form? Their suggestions gave me the necessary impetus to gather and publish the present collection of YAKSAGANA AND SANSKRIT DRAMATURGY.

Many hearts, hands and minds have supported and inspired me to bring out this book. I am grateful to Prof. N. Vajra Kumar secretary J.S.S Dharwad, Dr. S.N. Asthaputre, Principal J.S.S College, Dharwad, the Teaching and Non-teaching faculties of J.S.S College who are always with me while undertaking such adventures. Prof. P.T.J Mathachan, Dr. D.N Shanbhag, Prof. S.P Hegde, Sirsi guided me to give a final shape to the articles. Shri Keshava Saralaya has prepared the sketches of this book. I convey my thanks to all supporters and colleagues and well wishers.

I cannot forget the encouragement received from the members of my family and friends and friends in my native village Yadalli and at other places.

Particular mention must be made to Sri N.K. who inspired me through his scholarly discussions.

I am grateful to Smt. Kapila Vatsyayan, Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts, New Delhi, for her benedictory Foreword and encouragement to bring out this book.

My hearty thanks are due to Sri R.K., Asha Hegde, Sri Vinu, and Vaidya who computerised the Manuscript and scanned the sketches. My hearty thanks must go to Shri K.L. Joshi and his family 'Parimal Publications', Delhi for attractive print and publication.


The coastal districts of Karnataka like North Kanara, South Kanara are known for the histrionic art, Yaksagana. Some critics have tried to label this literature and art as a fold art. But I don't agree with his view because there are supporting evidences to prove that the literature of Yaksagana, viz. Yaksagana Prasangas and stage performance of Yaksagana Prasangas, viz. Yaksagana or Ata or Bayalata have been enriched by the Sanskrit literature and dramaturgy. Even though it has classical techniques, it is being performed in folk region by the folk people and for the folk citizens. One may witness some folk elements like Kolata in it. Hence, I wish to call this art a 'Classical-folk-art' which means an art which is the synthesis of classical and folk techniques.

We can see the resemblance in the techniques of Yaksagana and the techniques of Indian National arts like Kathakali, Kuchipudi, Jatra, Ankiyanat and also other classical arts like Kutiyattam, Krsnagiti etc. One can list the techniques of Sanskrit dramaturgy and Yaksagana as below.


Sanskrit dramaturgy Yaksagana
Sanskrit dramas. Yaksagana Prasangas.
Purvaranga. Sabhalaksana/Sabhavandane.
Sutradhara. Bhagavata.
Vidusaka. Hanumanayaka.
Pravesaki Dhruva. Pravesapada.
Naiskramaki Dhruva. Exit song.
Bharatavakya. Mangala pada.

A comparative study of these two urges me to say that Yaks agana is an offshoot of Sanskrit dramaturgy. This view is discussed elaborately in the essays of the book.



PART I    
1 Introduction 1
2 A Bird's eye view of Yaksagana 2
3 An Inside glance of Sanskrit Dramaturgy 5
4 Reference to word Yaksagana in Sanskrit Works 9
5 Sanskrit Drama and Yaksagana 14
6 Three types of Nandi in Yaksagana 19
7 Sloka, Stuti and Pada of Prasangas of Yaksagana 23
8 Relation between the Hanumannataka and Yaksagana 28
  Stage performance of Yaksagana an Sanskrit dramaturgy  
9 Purvaranga and Sabhalaksana or Sabhavandana of Yaksagana 32
10 Kauta and kautuka of Yaksagana 45
11 Pravesaki Dhruva in Yaksagana 48
12 Abhinaya, Natya, Svagata of Yaksagana and Sanskrit dramaturgy 56
13 Hand-Gestures of Yaksagana and the Abhinayadarpana 62
  Appendix 67
  Bibliography 70
  Glossary 73


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