The Caraka Samhita stands at the top of the ancient texts representing the School of Medicine in Ayurveda founded by the great Scholar-Sage Punarvasu Atreya. Its value is further enhanced by the fact that it is the only text available in complete form where-as other contemporary Samhitas such as of Jatukarna, Parasara etc. perished, that of Bhela is incomplete and that of Harita is dragged into controversy. Thus any scholar desirous to know about the fundamentals of Ayurveda and its approach to life, health and disease has essentially to take resort to the study of this text unique in depth and divergence. It is rightly said “whatever is not here can’t be found anywhere else.”
Historically too, it is quite interesting, Like an archaeological edifice. If it is dug into one would come across three distinct strate of authorship ascribed to Agnivesa, Caraka and Drdhabala in successive order.
This immensely valuable text needed since long a faithful and simple translation into English communicating the ideas as they are without divulging into dogmatic details which make the situation terse particularly for a yQung scholar. This comes from the pen of two erudite scholars of Ayurveda who has devoted the major part of the life in studying the text intensively fiorhV?rious angles and has command over both the languages concerned.
Thus the present work is a definite improvement in that its easy narrative style permits a Scholar not acquainted ,with Sanskrit syntax to grasp the various concepts of Ayurveda. Moreover, the present translation represents the first attempt of its kind to express in English the AyurvedadTpika commentary by Cakrapanidatta, which sheds light after light on the text.
Dr. RAM KARAN SHARMA (born March 20, 1927 at Shivapur, Saran, Bihar) was initiated to vedic and allied studies (including Ayurveda) on traditional lines by Pandit Ambikadatta Sharma at Lokamanya Brahmacaryasrama, Muzaffarpur. As a full bright scholar, he worked with Prof. M.B. Emeneau at the University of California, Berkeley, U.S.A. He worked with other eminent Professors like Pandit Uma Nath Jha. (G. B. B. College, Muzaffarpur) and Dr. Ishvara Datta (Patna College) affiliated to Patna University.
He was founder Director, Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan; Vice Chancellor, Sampurnanand Sanskrit University and Kameshvara Singh Darbhanga Sanskrit University; Joint Educational Adviser, Govt. of India; Visiting Professor, Universities of Columbia, California and Chicago also at the University of Bihar. Presently he is the President of International Association of Sanskrit Studies. Areas of his special interest are : Panini, Mahabharata, Darana, Kavya and Ayurveda. More than one hundred research papers and about a dozen major publications he has authored. His creative writings include Sandhya (Poetry), a recipient of Sahitya Akademi award and Sima (Novel) a recipient of Bharatiya Bhasha Parishad award.
VAIDYA BHAGWAN DASH (born Oct. 1934 in Parbatipur, Orissa) has had an outstandingly brilliant academic career. In addition to graduate and postgraduate qualifications in Ayurveda, he holds a Master’s degree in Sanskrit and a Doctorate from University of Delhi.
In the course of over forty years dedicated to research and practice of Ayurveda, Dr. Dash has attended several international conferences and seminars held in Brazil, Mexico, Italy and France. He was invited to deliver a course of lectures in Ayurveda at the Patrice Lumumba friendship University, Moscow and the Australian School of Ayurveda at Adelaide, South Australia.
A Sanskrit scholar, he handles the English Language with equal felicity. A significant advantage to his propensity for research in Ayurveda is Dr. Dash’s proficiency in Tibetan Medicine.
Author of over sixty important publications covering different aspects of Ayurveda and Tibetan Medicine, he is recipient of several prestigious awards including a Gold Medal from the Presidency of Italian Senate for outstanding services he has made to the health and well-being of mankind.
He was Deputy Adviser in Ayurveda to the Government of India in the Ministry of Health and F. W. till 1981, when he took voluntary retirement to enable him to devote more time for academic and research activities. As a Consultant in Traditional Medicine of the WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION, he had paid several visits to Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma and Mongolia to study and advise on the Health Development Programmes of those countries.
Alongside what Can be termed official medical science, the search for new drugs, and all the activity connected with the discovery of nature’s secrets there exists a vast body of knowledge which stretches back into the ancient realms of time.
People without number throughout the world are fascinated by, and drawn to the world of alternative medicine which is receiving ever more recognition and appreciation in view of the use of the elements which our mother earth offers.
Vaidva Bhagwan Dash) former deputy adviser on Ayurveda to the Indian Ministry of Health; is a leading expert in a field which brings together ancient traditions and innovation in an attempt to meet the enormous needs of a country such as India.
On the sound basis of his medical training and research, Dash has furthered his studies, and as a recognised authority in Ayurveda has taken his knowledge and caring beyond his country. He can look back on a long career in medicine and public service and among the many appointments he has held figures that of Director of the Yoga Research Institute in New Delhi.
The Pie Manzu Centre intends recognising the contribution which Vaidya Bhagwan Dash has made to the health and well-being of mankind by awarding him the medal of the Presidency of the Italian Senate.
The Caraka-samahita is famous as one of the remarkable accomplishments of ancient Indian science. Its large i’ll/ta a stbdna, as a thesaurus of the basic elements of Avurveda practice, including the intellectual preparation of the physician besides the principles of medicine, is itself an arduous task for translators. While two English translations of the Caraka are presently available, they are too literal, almost requiring that the original Sanskrit be read along with the translation in order to garner the meaning. I am happy to report that the present work, the result of unremitting and sensitive labours by Dr. K. K. Sharma and Mr. Bhagwan Dash, is a definite improvement in that its easy narrative style permits a scholar not acquainted with Sanskrit syntax to grasp the various concepts of Ayurveda. Moreover, the present translation is the first one to express in English the Ayurveda Dipika commentary by Cakrapani Datta, which sheds light after light on the Caraka.
I believe that the translators are quite justified in leaving untranslated certain terms, notably the triad of vata, pitta, and kapha, and certain names for diseases that stand for clusters of diseases rather than for particular well-defined ones Altogether, this translation, consummated ted as it is on a high level of learning and intelligence, should help the Caraka to assume its justified role in modern-day Ayurveda.; and at the very least enhance the admiration due to this great classic in the Eastern and Western worlds.
A healthy person is defined in Ayurveda as the one who has equilibrium of dosas (three entities regulating the functions of the body and the mind), dhatus (seven categories of tissue elements constituting the matrix of the body), inalas (by products of digestion and metabolism which are partially used for the sustenance of the body-matrix, and generally eliminated through stool, urine, sweat, etc.) and agnis (enzymes responsible for digestion and metabolism), who is spiritually elevated, who has optimum functioning of senses as well as sense organs, and who enjoys happiness of mind.
The dosas are three in number, viz., vãyu.. pitta and kapha. Väyu regulates all the movements and sensations in the body. Pitta regulates all the digestive and metabolic aëtivities; and kapha is responsible for creating compactness and lubrication of the tissues in the body. In addition, they regulate the activities of the mind (maims). These doas have three different aspects, viz.: 1. Subtle aspect through which they regulate the functions of mental activities; 2. Gross aspect through which they regulate the activities of visceras and different other organs of the body; and 3. Morbid aspect which is thrown out of the body. If these morbid dosas are not taken out of the body, they cause diseases and decay (ageing) in the body. Morbidity of the doas may be caused by natural forces, viz., ageing process, seasonal changes, etc., or by unnatural and unwholesome food, drinks and regimens. Because of these natural and unnatural factors, the agnis (enzymes responsible for digestion and metabolism stop functioning as a result of which ama (uncooked material) is produced. This ama (uncooked material) gets mixed up with the doas to cause different mobidities. The body has the capacity as a result of living force (prana) to counteract these mobidities if they are within the limit. If this limit is crossed, then a person suffers from diseases, decay (ageing process) and even death.
Dhatus or tissue-elements are divided into seven categories, viz.
1. rosa (plasma, including lymph and chyle);
2. rakta (haemoglobin f;action of red blood cells);
3. mamsa (muscle tissue and cells composing the structure of different visceras);
4. medas (fat tissue including yellow bone-marrow);
5. asthi (bone tissue including cartilages);
6. majja (red bone-marrow); and
7. sukra (sperm in males and ovum in females).
These tissue-elements continue to grow right from embryonic stage till adulthood, and this growth declines during old age. As a part of living process, every moment, parts of these tissue-cells get destroyed. These are replenished by food, drinks, wind, sun-ray, etc., through digestion and metabolism. Till adulthood when these tissues are growing, the replenishment of tissues takes place better in quality and more in quantity, than the loss. In old age, this replenishment takes place less in quantity and inferior in quality of cells. It is this inferior quality and less quantity of replenished tissue cells which cause ageing process; and persons suffer from different types of diseases ultimately leading to death. The process that helps the body to develop, grow and keep it in line during adulthood turns against it. Joints become stiff as their molecular mesh of collagen tightens. Most cells stop dividing. Free radicals are continuosly produced as the cells go about their daily business of reproduction. These are churned out en masse when the cells come under stress. But the body has a suitable powerful mechanism which acts at the time of stress to keep these free radicals in check. When this process is overcome, free radicals can damage the body which is the characteristic of ageing process. At the end of chromo some in the cells, there are bits of DNA which are called telometers. As a result of digestion and metabolism of food and drinks, the cells continue their lives dividing; and at each division of cells their telometers become a little shorter. This process continues till the telometers become too short at which point they stop dividing, and then die. The action of free radicals can be kept at a check by intake of anti-oxidants. If these antioxidants are supplemented through different therapies, then the cells will continue to grow both in quality and quantity. In ayurvedic parlance, these anti-oxidants are called ojas which is considered to be the essence (teja&) of all the tissue-elements. This ojas (vital essence) is of two types, viz., para-ojas and apara-ojas. They get vitiated in three different ways, viz., 1) vyãpat (morbidity), 2) visramsana (displacement), and 3) ksaya (diminution). These three defects in ojas are caused largely by the intake of toxic material like caffeine, nicotene, heroin and cannabinol, or by excessive sexual indulgence. If these intoxicants are avoided; and suitable therapies are taken, then the ojas including antioxidants will stop the ageing process. Sustenance of this ojas (vital essence) which is are called bala (immunity) results in vyadhi-sahatva (resistance to disease), which has two different aspects, viz., vyadhibala-virodhitva (attenuating the strength of disease) and vyadhyutpdda pratibandhakatva (prevention of the occurrence of a disease). Maintenance of the equilibrium of the seven categories of tissue- elements, and their essence called ojas is the sine-qua-non for the preservation and promotion of positive health, and prevention as well as cure of diseases.
During the process of digestion of food and metabolism of rasa (nutrient fluid produced after digestion) several by products come out. Some of these digestive and metabolic by products are utilised by the body, and some others are excreted out of the body through stool, urine, sweat, etc. Formation and excretion of these digestive and metabolic by products are again dependent upon thirteen categories of agnis (enzymes). If there is any derangement of agnis (enzymes), then morbidities are set in these by products leading to disease and decay.
There are thirteen categories of agnis (enzymes). One important group is located in gastro-intestinal tract, which is responsible for breaking down the molecules of food into smaller absorbable particles. Five groups of these agnis (enzymes) are located in the liver which help in the transformation of the heterogenous particles (molecules) into homologous ones. It is only the homologous ones circulating in the blood-stream that can be used by the tissue cells. But before that happens these are required to be acted upon by another seven categories of agnis (enzymes), which are called dhdtvagnis to make the nutrient material assimilable by the tissue-elements.
I suppose that, in asking me to write a foreword to Dr. Bhagwan Dash’s excellent tendering of Caraka Samhita and Ayurveda Dipika of Cakrapani Datta in English, the intention of the publisher is to introduce the young author to the world of Ayrurveda, which 1 have been in contact with much longer, having entered the field much earlier. The second possible objective is to make available to the prospective reader of the book my assessment of the practical and academic worth of the author’s work.
Dr. Bhagwan Dash’s current reputation in the field of Ayurvedic scholarship, research and administration is flattering enough to render unnecessary any fresh evaluation thereof by me. He has risen, like good Generals in Defence services, from the ranks. It has been my privilege and pleasure to see him leave mil&4,ne after milestone behind him in his onward march to success in different fields of Ayurvedic activities, both academic and administrative. And the best fruits of his multi-dimensional intellectual labour are to be found in his present interpretation of Caraka SaiphiM, a work which, in its own right, ranks as the greatest legacy the Seers of ancient India have bequeathed to the sciences of life.
Again, the Ayurveda Dipikã of Cakrapicii Datta is generally accepted as the most authentic commentary on the text of Caraka Samhita. This book will probably be the first to offer a standard English translation of Cakrapai’s important work to those having no direct access to the Sanskrit language.
I, therefore, attach considerable importance to this publication which is going to remove a great lacuna from the existing Ayurvedic literature available in the English language. Those who wish to undertake an intimate and advanced study of Caraka Samhita and, to an extent, even of Ayurveda as a whole, and are not equipped with an adequate knowledge of Sanskrit to study the originals by themselves, will find it profitable, perhaps even indispensable, to make a serious study of the contents of this treatise. The translations of the samhita and the commentary make an interesting reading. Here and there, the author brings a touch of modernity to the ancient text. He describes the assembly of the is in the Caitraratha forest as a symposium” and the sis themselves as participants in this symposium “. Punarvasu’s expression of views at the end of a discussion is captioned as “The Concluding Remarks of the Chairman—Lord Punarvasu “. He has almost bodily lifted the assembly from the beautiful Caitraratha forest and deposited it in a committee room of a modern institution.
Yet the translation remains faithful to the text. The great teacher is referred to as “Lord “Punarvasu only, and not as “His Holiness “or” His Excellency” Punarvasu. The word “Lord is not an inapt translation of the word “Bhagavan “. Therein lives the chief merit of the author’s interpretation—there is no departure from the true sense of the original text. I consider it a creditable achievement. It is particularly so when the text he has handled is as important and as extensive as that of Caraka Samhita and Ayurveda Dipikâ. I believe the readers will find the study of this book rewarding and satisfying.
We are happy to present to our esteemed readers an English translation of the Caraka’-samhita together with a critical exposition based on Cakrapani Datta’s Ayurvedika. The terms ‘ayurveda’ consists of two words, namely, ‘Ayus’ and ‘Veda’ meaning ‘the Science if Life’. It is traditionally considered as a upp1ement to the vedas. According to the carana-vyuha, this is an upaveda of rgveda. Both C’araka2 and Susruta, however, consider this as an upaveda of the Atharvaveda.
Some of the ancient texts on z4yurveda are not yet available. Among the extent texts, the caraka samhita by Agnivesa, the Susruta-samhita by Suruta and the Astanga brdaya by Vagbhata are recognised as Bhattrayi or the ‘Great Trio’. Of these three, Caraka is considered to be the most authentic inasmuch as it represents an authentic thesaurus of the various aspects of this science, with special reference to the fundamental principles of medicine. The following sloka furnished towards the end of this work aptly describes the significance 0f this work
“The methods of treatment prescribed by Agnivasa are meant both for the healthy (for the maintenance of their positive health and prevention of diseases) and patients (for the cure of their ailments). Whatever is mentioned in this work is available elswhere and things not mentioned here are not to be found anywhere else”
3. This work is studied and referred to by the physicians, teachers, research workers and students of Ayurveda all, over the country and abroad. Several commentaries were written on this work, and it was translated into almost all regional of India and also of some other countries like Ceylon, Nepal and Burma.
4. Ajwrneda has eight’ specialised branches. They are
I. Kayacikitsa or internal medicine
II. SJldkya or treatment of diseases of the organs in the Head and Neck.
III. Sal,ipabartrka or extraction of foreign bodies through surgery etc.
IV. Visagara-vairodhika,-prasamana or management of conditions caused by natural and artificial poisons.
V. Bbuta-vidya the treatment of Psychic-diseases caused by the demoniac seizures.
VI. Kaumara bbrtya or the management of the child.
VII. Rasayana or the administration of elixirs for the maintenance of youth and prevention of old age.
VIII. Vajikarana or the administration of aphrodisiacs.
5. All these eight branches deal with the prevention and cute of diseases and morbid conditions in their respective specialised fields.
6. The Caraka saibbiti contains 120 chapters. The number ‘120’ appears to bear some significance inasmuch as the other two among the ‘Great Trio’ also contain 120 chapters excluding, of course, Uttaratantra of the Sumhita which appears to have been added to it at a later stage. Other two important classics on Ayurveda, viz. Kasyapa-samhita and Bhela-samhita also contain 120 chapters each.
“Mádhavakara excels in ‘nidana’ (description of the diagnosis of diseases). Vagbhata excels in ‘sutrasthana’ (exposition of the basic principles of the science of medicine), Susruta excels in ‘sutrasthana’ (description of anatomy and physiology of the body) and Caraka excels in ‘cikitsa’ (description of the treatment of diseases)”.
Thus, we have great pleasure in presenting to our esteemed readers volume III of the Caraka samhita with English translation and critical exposition based on Cakrapanidatta’s Ayurveda dipika, dealing with Cikitsa sthana, the Section on the treatment of the diseases.
Caraka Samhit has eight sections namely (1) sutra sthna, (2) Nidana sthana, (3) Vimana sthana, (4) S’arlra sthana, (5) Indrjya sthana, (6) Cikttsasthana, (7) Siddhisthana, and (8) Kalpa sthana. Out of these, the ettire Sutra sthana dealing with the fundamentals of Ayurveda and extending over thirty chapters is published as Volume I of this work. The Volume II deals with .Vidana sthana (consisting of eight chapters), Vimana sthana (consisting of eight chapters); Santha sthana (consisting of eight chapters) and Indriya sthana (consisting of twelve chapters). In this third volume, we are including the first ten of the thirty chapters of Cikitsa sthana. The first and second chapters in this section have four parts each. To maintain the target of the size of these volumes, it was just impossible for us to include all these thirty chapters in one volume. We, therefore, propose to bring out this section in two volumes-Vol. III containing up to chapters ten and Vo1 IV containing the remaining chapters of the Cikitsa sthna.
Ayurveda has eight specialized branches, namely 1, Kaya cikitsä; 2. Salakya tantra; 3. salyapahartrka tantra; 4. Visagaruairodhika prasamana 5. Bhuta vidya. 6 kaumara bhriyaka 7. Rasayana tantra and 8.Vajikarana tantra. Cardaka samhita practically deals with all the eight specialised branches of Ayurveda. sarira sthana deals with Kaurnara b1zrtyaka and Cikitsa sthana deals with the remaining seven specialised branches. Caraka belongs to the school of medicine, and therefore, salya tantra dealing with surgical ailments (described in Cikitsa 25) and Snlakya tantra dealing with disease of eyes, ear1 nose and throat (described in Cikitsa 26) are not explained in detail. In fact, while dealing with the treatment of gulma (phantom tumour), which involves both medicine and surgery, Caraka, at one stage, has directed the patient to consult a specialist in surgery (Cikitsa 5:44). Bhata vi4ya is described in the Chapter nine and Visagara-Vairodhika prasaman in the Chapter twenty three.
Chapter I of Cikitsa sthana deals with Rasajana gantra and Chapter II with Vajikaranatantra. The remaining chapters of Cikitsa sthana deal with the treatment of diseases coming under the specialised branch of K4ya cikitsa.
Rasayana and Vajikarana—these two specialised branches are primarily meant for healthy people inasmuch as they provide means for preservation and promotion of positive health. Placement of these two Chapters in the beginning of Cikitsta sthana implies the special emphasis ayurveda lays upon the preventive medicine rather than the curative one.
It goes without saying that Caraka excels in the description of the treatment of diseases. Even though, the diagnostic aspects of some diseases are already described in .Nidana sthana, in the present section, diagnostic criteria are again described in respect of each disease. Thereafter, follow the line of treatment, description of various categories of recipes, diet and regimens for the treatment of these diseases.
Caraka samhita was originally composed by Agaivesa; it was redacted by Caraka and a portion of it was subsequently lost, and was, supplemented by a fourth century physician Drdhabala (of Pancanada region). Which portion does represent the original Aqnites’a samhita ? Which topics were subsequently redacted by Caraka ? Which are the sections subsequently supplemented by Drdhabala ? These questions are unfortunately not yet very clear. Even the colophons of the extant editions of the Caraka samhita are not unanimous about it. A reference in this connection may be made to the commentary and explanatory notes appended to the introdu& tory lines (1 and 2) of Cikitsa 9. It provides ample evidence to what we intend to suggest. Our suggestion is further strengthened by the references quoted from both, Agnivef a satphita and Caraka saiphita in the 4yurveda sauk4ya of Todarananda composed by Todaramalla (16th century A. D.) and published in volume 1-6—by Concept Publishing Company, New Delhi. The quotations he has taken from the Caraka sambita are generally not available in the extant editions of this work. This shows that the Caraka samhita, which was available with Toaramalla was different from the extant editions of this work. Therefore, there is an urgent need to have a critical edition of the Caraka samhita based on the manuscripts available in different libraries of India and abroad.
Unlike in the previous volumes, the botanical names of medicinal plants are not given in parenthesis, in addition to Sanskrit names, in the present volume. This is largely to avoid repetition. A glossary of these terms will be provided in the last volume.
We are extremely thankful to Prof Jyotir Mitra (B.I.M.S., Ph.D., Acarya), Head of Deptt. of Basic Principles of Ayurveda of Banaras Hindu University and Ku. Kanchan Gupta (M,A.,M.Ed.)for their constant help in the preparation of this work. We pray to Lord Punarvasu to bless them with good health and success in life.
We are in Delhi and our book is being published and printed at Varanasi. We could not check the final print order, Therefore, several printing mistakes have crept into this work for which we crave the indulgence of our esteemed readers. These mistakes will be rectified in the next edition of this work.
We have great pleasure in presenting to our esteemed readers, Volume-4 of the Caraka-samhita together with translation of the text and critical exposition based on Cakrapainidatta’s Ayurveda-dipikä commentary. The inordinate (unavoidable though) delay in bringing out this volume is regretted.
The first volume containing the thirty chapters of Sütar sthãna was published in 1976. The second volume consisting of Nidãna, Vimãna, Sarira and Indriya Sthãnas came out in 1977. A separate volume on the Saflra-sthäna only, with introduction and index, was also brought out in 1979. The third volume containing the first fourteen chapters of Cikitsa-sthann came out in 1988. We had originally planned to include all the remaining chapters (15-30) of Cikitsa-sthana in this fourth volume. But only 15th to 26th chapters could be included in this volume in order to maintain symmetry with the size of the previous three volumes.
Apart from the treatment of various ailments, the fifteenth chapter provides an elaborate description of the physiological concepts, like digestion and metabolism, in ayurveda. Chapters XXIII and XXIV elaborate various types of poison and alcoholic preparations. Caraka-sarnhitã is basically a book of kãya-cikitsa (Internal medicine). Even then other specialised branches like surgery (salya-tantra) and treatment of the diseases of eye, ear, nose and throat (a1akya-tanrra) are not completely overlooked. Though in brief, the treatment of these ailments are described in chapters-XXV and XXVI.
Our efforts will be amply rewarded, if this work serves some useful purpose for the students and research workers in the field of medicine in general and in ayurveda in particular.
Kin. Kanchan Gupta (M.A., M.Ed.) and Shri Satish Sharma deserve our good wishes and blessings for assisting in the preparation of the press copy of this volume.
It gives us immense pleasure to present before our august readers this fifth volume of Caraka-samhita with English translation and critical exposition based on Cakrapini’s Ayurveda-dipika. It includes the four chapters of its important section called Cikitsa-thäna (Section on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Diseases). The contents of these chapters in brief are as follows.
Even though the term ‘cikitsitai’generally meaning ‘treatment’ is suffixed to the name of the disease in the title of each chapter, it deals with the diagnosis of these ailments in addition to their treatment.
Spasticity of the thighs is not very commonly found now-a-days. But when such a rare case comes to the physician, the latter gets baffled about its pathogenesis and treatment. Elaborate description of the diagnosis. pathogenesis and treatment is described in the chapter no. XXVII which will be of immense help.
Along with the economic advancement, man is going far away from Nature, and in order to find an honourable place in the society, he is often exposed to physical fatigue and mental tension. This stressful living is the raisen d’ etre for many of the present day maladies of psycho-neurotic nature. According to ãyurveda, the functioning of the mind and nerves is dependent upon vãyu or väta. All the functions of the body, according to ayurveda are controlled by three elements, which in ayurvedic parlance are called dosas. These are vãyu or vãta. pitta and kapha or slesrna. In their state of equilibrium, they maintain homeostasis and preserve as well as promote positive health. Any disturbance in their equilibrium, they maintain homeostasis and preserve as well as promote positive health. Any disturbance in their equilibrium leads to disease or death. Amongst these dosas, vãyu is the most important because it controls all types of sensation and motor actions which are the functions of the nerves controlled by the mind.
Diseases caused by väyu are classified into two broad categories, viz., (1) nänätmaja or those caused by väyu alone, and (2) sämanyaja or those caused by vãyu in association with other doas. Nãnãtmaja type of vãtika diseases are of eighty types which are already enumerated in Sütra 20: 10. Some of these vatika diseases are described here in detail. Apart from some of those enumerated in Sütra 20 : 10, new vätika diseases are also described with reference to their diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment.
Vayu getsaggravated to cause a disease in two different ways, viz., (1) by dhatu-ksaya or diminution of tissue elements, and (2) by tnärgaãt’arana or obstruction to its channel of circulation (vide verse no. 59). Nerves including the cells in the brain andspinal chord are the pathways through which vayu moves. Thus vayu, the moving material or the neuro-humoral transmission of sensation, is differeat from the nerves through which it moves. Any damage or decay of these nerves will. however, cause impairement of the functioning of väyu resulting in the manifestation of several diseases described in this chapter. Improper food and regimen may also cause diminution of tissue elements resulting in the morbidities of nerve cells to give rise to such diseases. Thus, the line of treatment involves the removal of obstruction in the nerves of their cells, and restoration of the normalcy of these cells by appropriate nourishment. Diagnosis and treatment of these vatika diseases iikc hemiplegia, multiple sclerosis, paraplegia and facial paralysis are described in this chapter no. XXVIII.
Väta-rakta represent a group of ailments involving the inflammation of joints including gout. These ailments are caused by the vitiation of blood and aggravation of väyu. Their causative factors are described in detail. During the process of metabolism several by products emerge. These in ayurvedic parlance are called dhamu-maias. These by products serve some useful purpose, and remain for some time in the blood after which these are eliminated. If these waste products are in large quantity and get eliminated in small quantity, then the surplus quantity remaining in the blood produces joint diseases like arthriitis indifferent forms and gout. Aging process of bones sometimes makes them porous. This very often happens in ladies after their menopause because of harmonal disturbances. Excessive use of some chemicals in the form of medicine also causes such morbidities in the joints. For the treatment of these joint diseases the ayurvedic physician gives therapies for the alleviation of vãyu, and correction of metabolic disturbances (vitiation of blood) which are elaborated in the chapter no. XXIX.
Kaumãrabhrtya or paediatrics is one of the specialised branches of ayurveda. To get a healthy offspring is one of the aims of grhasthdrama (married life). This will be possible only when the would-be mother is physically healthy and mentally happy. She has to be treated for her gynecic disorders to make her fir for conception, pregnancy and delivery. Similarly, the semen of the male partner and the ovum of the female partner should be of suitable nature for conception. Apart from unwholesome food and regimen of the mother and father, some genetic factors and karinan (result of the bad action in the past life) are also responsible for various gynecic defects, and defects in the genital organs of the offspringc Some of the gynecic defects are irremediable. The curable morbidities of genital organs are to be corrected in order to beget a healthy child.
After delivery, mother’s milk is the best source of nourishment for the child. Because of wrong food and regimen, the breast-milk at times gets vitiated.
Diagnosis of these gynecic, seminal and lacteal morbities, and therapeutic measures for their treatment are described in the chapter no. Xxx.
The text of Caraka-samhita deals primarily with the specialised branch called Kaya-cikitsa (treatment of internal diseases). Diagnosis and treatment of only a few diseases are described in this section. One should not however carry the impression that these are the only diseases known to ayurveda or which alone can be treated by ayurvedic therapies. Diseases along with their permutations and combinations are innumerable which the ayurvedic physician has to confront and treat. It is nor possible and even not necessary to describe all these different types of ailments in a classical work like the present one. Diseases and their treatment described in this text are only by the way of illustration which enables a physician to successfully handle all the other diseases.
We are happy to present before our esteemed readers the sixth volume of Caraka-samhitã with its English translation and notes in English based on the commentary of its master commentator Cakra panidatta. This volume includes the last two sections.,viz., Kalpasthana and Siddhi-sthãna of Caraka-samhita.
In Susruta-samhitä , the Kalpa-sthäna deals with various types of poisons and recipes for their treatment. But in Caraka-samhitã, this section deals with different types of recipes of important drugs for emetic and purgation therapies. In addition, this section deals with the methods of selection and administration of these recipes. For the preparation of these recipes, drugs are to be added in specific quantities. For this purpose, the weights and measures used in ayurveda, and different rules for using these drugs are also described.
In Siddhi-section, methods of administering five specialised therapies, which are called pañca-karma in ayurvedic parlance are described. Persons suitable and unsuitable for these therapies, recipes to be used for different types of basti (medicated enema), the size and shape of the instrument to be used, complications arising out of the administration of panca-karnia therapy and their management are also described. In addition, diseases of three vital organs, viz., heart, head and urinary bladder, and their treatment are described in this section.
Pan ca-karma therapy has to be administered in specific seasons. But there are recipes which can be used in all seasons for the rejuvenation of the body. The medicated enema-therapy of this type is called yäpanabasti. Different recipes to be used for this type of basti (medicated enema) are also described here. In addition, the implications of logical terms used in scholarly debates (tantra-yuktis) are also explained.
At the end, Drdhabala has explained the role of a redactor ‘samskarta). In addltion to giving his geneology, he has made it clear that seventeen chapters of Cikitsã-section, and the kalpa as well as Siddhi-sections in their entirety were supplemented by him by collecting material from different texts which were then extant because this portion of original Caraka-Samhita was not then available.
The original text of Agiuvesa-sazhitä was composed perhaps 2000 years before Christ. It was redacted by Caraka during seventh century before Christ. Because of significant contribution made by Caraka, this text was later known as Caraka-samhita (after the name of the redactor), in the place of Agnivesa-sarphiä. Because of vicissitudes of time, almost one-third of this important text became extinct. In fourth Century AD,, Drdhabala himself, the texts of these supplemented sections were compiled from other texts, the readers may find sonic repetitions and unsystematic arrangements. Nontheless these are the two important sections from therapeutic point of view. As has be on stated by Dr4habala himself (Siddhi 1:40), basti (medicated enema) therapy constitutes half of the therapeutic measures and according to some, basti itself constiwtes the entire ãyurvedic therapeutics.
In spite of phenomenal progress in medical science, large number of patients suffer because of inadequacy of the so called scientific therapies. Not only that, many patients suffer because of the adverse effects of present day therapies which are called iatrogenic diseases. Because of economic development, the span of life is increasing. This has given rise to many old people in the society, most of whom are invalid and dependant upon doctors and hospitals for the sustenance of their life. Ayurveda doesn’t accept this type of society. Death is eternal truth, and nobody has escaped it. But till death, one should have perfect senses and a person with his accumulated experience should be able to render assistance to his family, society and state. A person in old age should be an asset to the society, and not a liability as it happens today. This has been summed up in the vedic praye
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