About the Book
Maulana Jalaluddin Mimi (1207-1273) is the most celebrated Sufi and philosophic poet of Persian language. His philosophy is enlightened with spiritual frenzy and creative madness inspiring the heart and elevating the mind. Once we enter the halo of love, warmth and music that surrounds the poetry of the Maulana, it becomes impossible to draw a line between the earthly and the heavenly, the human and the divine. The Maulana's works, particularly his Mathnawi is as much acknowledged in the West as in the East. Mini, as argued by a number of scholars, recognized and appreciated Indian wisdom, particularly in his Mathnawi. This 'A Descriptive Catalogue of the Manuscripts and Printed Editions of Maulana Mull's Works in India', is a befitting response of India to the Maulana and an illustration of the interesting of the Indian scholars and sages in Rum’s works. 419 manuscripts of the Mathnawi, 33 manuscripts of its selections, 166 manuscripts of its commentaries, 9 manuscripts of its glossary, 35 manuscripts of Divan-e Shams, 3 manuscripts copies of the Maulan’s only prose work Fihe Ma Fihe have been described in this catalogue which is an ample proof of the keen interest of the Indian scholars in Maulana's works.
Prof. Sharif Husain Qasemi was a faculty member in the Department of Persian, University of Delhi. He obtained his Master's and Ph.D. degrees from the same university and also later qualified the Post-Graduate Diploma in Archaeology from the School of Archaeology, New Delhi. His more than 15 research books and nearly 200 articles in English, Persian and Urdu, published from India and Iran exhibit his interest in scholarly understanding of Persian literature, culture, and medieval Indian history. Prof. Qasemi has represented his university in a number of national and international conferences held in France, Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Sweden, Uzbekistan and Pakistan. Prof. Qsemi is also editing the reputed 'journal Name'.
Dr. Ramesh C. Gaur, Director (Lib.&Inf.) and Head Kala Nidhi Division (HAG scale), Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts (IGNCA), Ministry of Culture, New Delhi, Government of India Prior to this he was the University Librarian, Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), New Delhi, India (2011-2018). His past assignments include -TIFR-Mumbai, CSIR-CRRI, IMT & MDI etc. A Fulbright scholar (VT, USA), Dr. Gaur has visited over 25 countries in Asia, Europe including USA and Australia etc in relation to various assignments related to Digital Library and Allied Area. He has received over 10 national and international honors and awards for his exemplary works in his chosen filed. He is Member of over 60 National and International committees / Academic Advisory Boards. some important includes; International Advisory Committee (IAC) UNESCO Memory of the World (MoW) Programme, Governing Council-INFLIBNET, Member-International Consultative Committee on Digital Dunhuang, China, NDLTD Board of Directors, USA IFLA RSCAO and ARL Section, Expert Committee International centre on Documentary Heritage(ICDH), South Korea UGC National Committee on Plagiarism Regulations 2018, UGC National Committee for Implementation of Submission and Access to Electronic Theses and Dissertations in Universities in India, He is the Member of Editorial / Advisory Board / Guest Editor in several International and National Journals. In over 28 year's professional career, he has authored and edited 7 books, has written over 60+ articles /papers and has presented / delivered over 400 papers / talks in various national and international conferences etc. He has directed/organized a number of national and international events.
We are pleased to publish and present 'A Descriptive Catalogue of the Manuscripts and Editions of Maulana Rumi's Works in India". It is another step forward by Kala Nidhi Division, the Cultural Heritage and knowledge resource Centre of Indira Gandhi National Centre for Arts, to explore and scholarly bringing out a historic and detailed document of India's relations particularly in the field of scholarship and mysticism with Iran, Afghanistan and Turkey.
Maulana Jalaluddin Mimi- (1207-1273 A.D.) was born in Balkh in Afghanistan and flourished in Qonya in Turkey as an Islamic Scholar and a mystic of repute and great influence. Today, he is regarded as the most celebrated Sufi and thinker with spiritual frenzy and creative madness inspiring the hearts and elevating the minds to heights possible. As a result of it, a great number of Orientalists all over the world have readily contributed scholarly research books and articles on his life, works and achievements as a Safi, a poet, a thinker and above all a humanist with an international vision. Our own Sufis, sages and scholars have been very responsive at different points of time to Rumi's humanistic approach and his dedicated pursuits to remind the human beings of their exalted position in the Universe. Thus Rand preached and practiced Islam in its proper perspective as the religion of love. He was, as a consequence, able to affect harmony between the various sections of society and at the same time with the hearts of all of them.
Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi as a scholar with deep insight was not ignorant of the ancient Indian wisdoms and scholarship. He has made extensive use particularly of fables from Panchatantra originally in Sanskrit and translated into Persian as Kalila-o-Dimna, to elaborate and corroborate his own Sufi perceptions. Narrating a story of 'Parrot and Trader', he has pleaded that a way of salvation is too found in India. Some of the scholars of Rumi, on the basis of some statements of the Maulana and his close associates have even ventured to prove that Shams Tabriz, the Safi mentor (Murshid) of Mimi originally belonged to India. Thus it can, on the authority of these scholars, be stated that the Maulana was much influenced by rich Indian mystic traditions. Our scholars and sages from the very beginning showed their deep interest in Maulana's works. A great number of manuscripts and printed editions of all the three works of Rumi — Mathnawi, Diana, Fihe Ma Fihe — particularly his Mathnawi and its commentaries undertaken by the Indian scholars preserved in Indian collections all over India explicitly exhibit the keen interest of our society in them.
There are dated and undated manuscripts of Rumi's works preserved in different collections all over India. It is again heartening to note that manuscripts of the Mathnawi preserved in Habib Ganj Collection, Maulana Azad Library, `Aligarh Muslim University, 'Aligarh, U.P. was transcribed in 712/1312, i.e. only forty years after the death of the Maulana. This is the oldest copy of the manuscripts of the Mathnawi documented in this catalogue. Apart from the dated manuscripts of Rumi's works, a good number of illustrated manuscripts with beautiful miniatures and gold and colored works of the Mathnawi and Diwan-e Shams are also available in our different collections. It is again a fact of historic importance that 'Abdul Latif `Abbasi of Gujarat (d.1639 A.D.) scientifically edited the Mathnawi for the first time in 1623 A.D. collecting not less than eighty different manuscripts of it. He named this magnificent work as Wuskha-e Nasikha-e Mathnawiyeit-e Saqima'.
It is earnestly hoped this catalogue would further ignite the interest of the worldwide scholars to continue ages old tradition of scholarly evaluating Rumi's works in the context of present day situation.
I express my gratitude to Prof. Sharif Husain Qasemi, former Head of Department of Persian, University of Delhi and Dr. Ramesh C. Gaur, Director (Library & Information) & Head of Kala Nidhi Division, IGNCA for their sustained scholarly efforts to accomplish this historic project in a proper way in a very short span of just four months. The interest and assistance of Dr. Zakira Sharif Qasemi, retired professor of Persian, Jawahar Lal University, New Delhi in the process of the compilation of the catalogue is duly appreciated.
"A Descriptive Catalogue of the Manuscripts and Printed Editions of Maulana Jalaluddin Rami's Work in India" is accomplished under the auspices of Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts, New Delhi.
It is, indeed, a befitting response of India to Maulana Jalaluddin popularly known as Rumi, for his recognition and appreciation of Indian wisdom, particularly in his Mathnawi-e Ma `navy (Spiritual couplets). Eminent scholars of Rumi have rightly concluded that Rumi was directly or indirectly influenced by Indian thought and intellect. The Kalila-o-Dimna, the Perso-Arabic adaptation of the Sanskrit Panchatantra supplies numerous beast fables to RI:1mi in his Mathnawi. In a story of "Tuti-o-Bazargan" (parrot and a trader), Rumi illustrates that a way of salvation can be found in India. There is another story of a man who seeing the angel of death, went to Solomon and requested him to send him to India to save his life. Some scholars have even tried to prove that Shams Tabrizi, Rami's spiritual mentor, was originally an Indian. It is also significant and interesting to note that Mathnawi of Rumi begins abruptly with the "Song of Read", the musical instrument of Lord Krishna: 19 -LS Le 3e,- Ls; 31 Listen to the reed how it tells a tale complaining of separation. This couplet reminds one of our Indian concepts that "when a man enjoys grace, flute is played on for him".
A short account of life and works of Maulana Jalaluddin would not be out of place here:
Jalaluddin was born at Balkh in today's Afghanistan about the year 1207 A.D. but became famous under his sobriquet of Rumi as he passed the greater part of his life at Qonya (Iconium) in Asia Minor, known to Muslims as Ram in those days. His followers, out of respect, gave him the title of Maulana which means 'our lord'.
Jalaluddin's father Baha'uddin Mohammad, commonly known as `Baha'uddin Walad' (d.1231 A.D.) was such an extremely learned and respected scholar of Islamic sciences that he was entitled Sultan-ul 'Mama (king of the scholars). He was a descendent of Hazrat Abu-Bakr (d.13/634), the first Caliph of Islam. Because of his views not endorsed by the contemporary rulers and fear of impending Mongol invasion, Sultan Walad left Balkh. Jalaluddin was five years old at that time. He, with his family and a number of followers, proceeded to Baghdad. He went to Makkah from Baghdad and then to Damascus and next to Malatia in 1217 A.D. In the course of his journey, Jalaluddin, as a young child, met Fariduddin 'Attar Nishapari (1119-1230), a great Safi, who presented his Asriir-Nc7ma (Book of Secrets) and foretold his future greatness. Jalaluddin's latter life was much influenced by the books of 'Attar specially Mantiq-ut Tair (the Colloquy of Birds), an allegorical work illustrating the different states of the path of the SiifIs2. From Malatia, Jalaluddin's family went to Arzinjan, then to Larenda in Asia Minor.
The Saljuq Sultan `Ala'uddin Kaiqubad I (Ruled: 616/1219 to 634/ 1237), the sovereign of Asia Minor, heard of the great learning and sanctity of Baha'uddin. The Sultan invited him to Qonya, his capital, where he installed him in a college and soon professed himself his disciple. Baha'uddin died here in 1231 A.D. and the Sultan built a marble mausoleum over his grave.
After the death of his father, Rum' went from Qonya to Halab (Aleppo) and then to Damascus for further studies. And it was here that be saw his would be great friend and also a spiritual guide, Shamsuddin Tabrizi. Rumi showed the greatest regard to him and even called his book of spiritual odes the Divan-e Shams-e Tabriz', putting the name of this mentor for at the end of each poem. It is eluded as mentioned earlier that Shams was probably of Indian origin.
After his return from Damascus to Qonya, Jalaluddin's reputation for learning and sanctity spread all over. He was then appointed professor of four separate colleges.
Regarding instituting the musical service in his order in 1246 A.D. Jalaluddin is said to have related that when he perceived that the people had no inclination for the practice of religious austerities, no striving for knowledge of the divine mysteries, he thought of bringing to use poetical exhortations and musical service. Thus was introduced the whirling dance in the Malawi order': They use different kinds of musical instruments. Their special dress, the Indian garb of mourning, as Shamsuddin Abad Alake (d. 1353 A.D.) says, in his Manabí-ul Arefin, was instituted by Jalaluddin in memory of his spiritual guide. Shamsuddin Tabrizi.
It is further recorded in this regard that the Maulana was fond of whirling around to the tune of songs and instruments. When in a state of ecstasy, sometimes, he would leap up and start dancing, sometimes, while walking in the street, the sound of music coming from a home would not set into rhythmic motions. It was only natural that his Murids followed sent and in time became known as the order of the whirling Derwishes. It was Maulana who put a seal of sanctity of Sama, on musical instruments and on the ecstatic, rhythmic movements (rags) that often accompany same gatherings.
The life account of Jalaluddin Rumi and his scholarly and mystic pursuits cannot be completed without referring to two other persons closely associated with him. They were Salahuddin Faridun Zarkub (gold beater, d.1258 A.D.), a fellow-disciple with Rumi of Burhanuddin Tirmizi and Chelibi Husamuddin (d.1284 A.D.), both were closely and dedicatedly associated with Jalaluddin Rana. Shaikh Salahuddin assisted Jalaluddin in the management of his order and also instructing his disciples. On the death of Shaikh Faridan, Chelibi Husamuddin was appointed Jalaluddin's assistant in his place. It was he to whom the Mathnawi was dedicated and also it was his encouragement and suggestion which inspired Rumi to compose this long poem. An inexhaustible treasure of spiritual wisdom and for the same reason it is also called by the name of ljusam-Nc7ma (the book of Husam).
Very little is known about the life of Shams of Tabriz who created a revolution and spiritual enlightenment in the life of Rand. Dates of his birth and death are not exactly known. Shamsuddin Mohammad son of Khavind Jalaluddin (or Ala'uddin) a 'Nau Musalman' (a new Muslim) lived in Tabriz, Iran. He was a descendant of Buzurg Ummid, the ruler of Almovt between 607 and 618 A.H. Shams Tabrizi spent a considerable time at Tabriz. For the purpose of education, Abu-Bakr Sala-Baf (basket-maker) was a Shaikh (spiritual guide) of Shams at Tabriz. Shams also taught at Arz-e Rum (in the North-Eastern part of Turkey). Leaving Tabriz, he travelled extensively to increase his spiritual learning and outlook. In the course of his travels, he chanced to meet a number of great scholars and persons who had given themselves to spiritual pursuits. As Shams Tabriz was always travelling, he is referred to as Shams-e Paranda (flier).
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