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Elements of Indian Art:  Including Temple Architecture, Iconography and Iconometry
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Elements of Indian Art: Including Temple Architecture, Iconography and Iconometry
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Preface

It is a matter of certain amount of satisfaction that the first edition of this book, published in late 2002, was almost completely sold out by mide - 2006. Although, of late, I am not keeping good health, on the insistence of the students and the members of the Faculty of the National Museum institute, New Delhi, particulary Prof.(Dr.) Anupa Pande, head of the History of Art Department , who kept on going me to do it so very affectionately that I could not refuse. My friends Shri K. N. Dikshit and Sri Trivedi Madneshwar are to some extent also responsible for it. Having once decided to add three new chapters in this edition of the publication- one, dealing with the Rock Art, also called "Prehistoric Art" or "Stone Age Art", second dealing with the " Protohistric Art", or " The Bronze Age Art", same as " The Harappan Art", also called " The Indus" or "the Indus- Sarasvati Art," and the third dealing with the " Indian Art Beyond the Indian frontiers" encompassing the ancient art of some of the neighbouring countries located on the south and the east of India _ Sri Lanka , Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia and Indonesia _ since these countries have shared India's culture for centuries together and producted a lot similar works of art and architecture within their own local matrix.

I will be failing in my duty if I do not record the most valuable assistance I received from my young colleagues in the Indian Archaeological Society, New Delhi, Sarvashri Suresh Bomble and S. Vijayakumar. On the Secretarial and Internet front, Savashri Mohit Srvastava, Lakhan Trivedi and Bharat Singh were of great help, for which I am thankful to them. Ms. Raj Rani, Librarian, helped me by providing most the books I needed.

Lastly, a word of appreciation for Shri Sushil Mittal, the Young and energetic owner of the D. K. Printworld, who lovingly placed a very tall order to me - "Kindly complete it within two weeks Course of the National Museum Institute who have expressed great desire to own the book very soon." Was it not Cruelty? But than I thoroughly enjoyed it.

Back of the Book The book is the study of the fundamental Principles of ancient Indian art and architecture, dealing with essentials of Hindu thinking and practice of art like the Hindu view of Godhead, iconography and iconometry, and symbols and symbolism in Hindu Art. It undertakes a survey of Indian art and Temple architecture from the 3rd century BCE through the mediaeval period. It elaborately views the various terms and concepts associated with the field of art and iconography like mudras, asanas, pithas , explaining the nature of Buddhist and Jain deities as well as those of Hindu sects like Saivism, Vaisnavism and Saktism.

Tracing the differences in conception of a Hindu temple, a Muslim Mosque and a Christian church, the research focuses particulary on the principles of visualization of symbols and signs in Hinduism and Christianity. It also reveals how the West has viewed Indian literature and art, exposing the inner contradictions of some European thinkers who while praising literary works of kalidasa and others condemned the Hindu images.

The work contains more than 400 illustrations, half-tone and line drawings, that make the discussion easy to comprehend for a range of readers- scholars, students as well as laymen.

Dr. S. P. Gupta, born is 1931, presently Chairman, Indian Archaeological Society , New Delhi, is a distinguished archaeologist and art historian . He has authored a Number of books including Disposal of the Dead and physical Types in Ancient India (1971), Tourism, Meseums and Monuments (1975), Archaeology of Soviet Central Asia and the Indian Borderlands two volumes (1978), The roots of Indian Art (1980) and Cultural Tourism in India (2002).

Dr. Shashi Prabha Asthana (1947- 1997) an expert in ancient Indian history and archaeology, won a number of prestigious scholarships and fellowships like Commonwealth Scholarship and British Institute Fellowship. She has authored several monographs and catalogues including History and Archaeology of India's Contacts with other Countries from earliest times to 300 BC (1976), Pre-Harappan Cultures of India and Its Borderlands (1985), Mathura Kala (200), Indian Art through the Ages and Indian Bronzes.

 

Contents
  Preface v
  Preface to the Second Edition vii
  Map of India showing important Art Sites x
  Transliteration Chart xv
  Map of India showing Sites of Principal Temples xvi
1 Rock Art in India 1
  Various kinds of Rock Art 2
  Distribution and Chronology 2
  Bhimbetka 3
  The Purpose of Rock Art 5
  Dating the rock Art 5
  Other Forms of Stone Age Art & Architecture 7
2 The Harappan Art 9
  Materials Used 11
  Subject Matter & Common Motifs 12
  Stone & Bronze Sculptures 13
  Terracottas 14
  Steatite Seals 15
  Pottery Paintings, Metal Art, Glazing, etc. 16
  Harappan Architecture 17
  The Continuity of Harappan Traditions 20
3 Fundamentals of Indian Art 21
  Religion and Art 22
  Hinduism has no Hierarchy Amongst Gods 23
  Hinduism vis-à-vis Chistianity and Islam 24
  The Avataras of Visnu 24
  Buddha: The Life and Teaching 25
  Mahavira: The Life and Teaching 26
  Art and Architecture 27
  Sacred Structures 27
  Hindu Temple 31
  Temples of north India 34
  Temples of South India 40
  Temples of Orissa 44
  The Icons 47
  Symbols 49
  Hindu Iconography 53
  Siva 53
  Visnu 54
  Brahma 55
  The Sakta 55
  The Tantra 63
  Ihamrga 66
  Mythology: What it is in Hinduism? 67
  Buddha 67
  Bodhisattva 68
  Jina 69
  Basic Nature of Indian Art 70
  Paintings 72
  Nine Rasas 75
  Tempera and Fresco Techniques 75
  Differing Attitudes towards Indian Art 77
  The Role of European Travellers Coming with Christian Bias 78
4 Indian Art in Historical Perspective 81
  The Terminology 81
  Vedic Heritage 82
  Mauryan Art (fourth- third centuries BCE) 83
  Sunga- Satavahana Art (second- first centuries BCE) 89
  Kusana Art (First-third centuries CE) 94
  Bactrian, Mathura and Gandhara Schools of Kusana Art 101
  Gupta Art(fourth - Sixth centuries) 103
  Post-Gupta Art - Phase I (Sixth -eighth centuries) 109
  Maitrakas Art (Sixth- seventh centuries) 109
  Early Calukyan Art (sixth- seventh centuries) 110
  Rastrakuta Art (eight- ninth centuries) 110
  Pallava Art (Sixth - eighth centuries) 111
  Post- Gupta Art - Phase II (ninth- twelfth centuries) 112
  Gurjara- Pratihara Art (eighth -tenth centuries) 112
  Cola Art (ninth -twelfth centuries) 112
  Pala Art (eighth -eleventh centuries) 115
  Hoyasala Art (eleventh- thirteenth centuries) 116
  Orissa School (eighth- thirteenth centuries) 117
  Candela Art (tenth- eleventh eleventh centuries) 118
  Other mediaeval Monuments and Art Traditions 119
  North India 119
  South India 119
5 Iconography : The Making of Cult Images 121
  Iconometric Sources 122
  Texts governing the Northern Schools 122
  Texts governing the Southern Schools 122
  Non-iconometric or Sastriya Sources 122
  Tantras 123
  Other Works 124
  Some classifications of Images 125
  Cala or Portable Images 126
  Acala or Stationary Images 126
  Purna or Complete Images 126
  Apurna or Incomplete Images 126
  Santa Images or Images with Pleasing Countence 127
  Asanta Images or Images with Agitated Countenance 127
  Mudras 127
  Hasta- mudras or Hand Poses 128
  Pada- mudras or Foot Poses 133
  Sarira- Mudras or Body poses 134
  Attributes or objects held in hands 135
  Weapons of War and Chase 135
  Household and Agricultural Objects and Implements 137
  Fruits 138
  Flowers 138
  Animal World 139
  Musical Instruments 139
  Others 140
  Asanasor Sitting Postures 141
  Asanas or pithas(pedestals) 142
  Vahanas or Mounts 143
  Mukutas or Headgears 144
  Abhusana or Ornaments 145
  Karnabhusana or Ear ornaments 145
  Kanthabhusana or Neck ornaments 146
  Vaksabhusana or Chest ornaments 146
  Kati-abhusanaor Hip ornaments 147
  Pada- abhusana or Feet ornaments 148
  Bahu and Bhuja- abhusana or Armlets and Wristlets 148
  Nasa-abhusana or Nose ornaments 148
  Paridhana or Dress 148
  Bandha or Belt 148
  Vastra or Cloth 148
  Special dress of the Buddha 149
6 Principals of Iconometry 151
  Tala as main Unit of Measurement 152
  Angula as the First Unit of Measurements 152
  Height and Girth Measurements 152
  Measurements of Different Parts of the Body 153
  Uttam Madhyama and Adhama Measurements 154
  Some Textual Differences 155
7 Indian Art Beyond the Indian Frontiers 157
  Sri Lanka, 159; Myanmar, 162; Thailand, 166; Cambodia, 170; Indonesia, 176  
  Select Bibliography 183
  Index 187
Sample Pages































Elements of Indian Art: Including Temple Architecture, Iconography and Iconometry

Item Code:
IDI055
Cover:
Paperback
Edition:
2015
ISBN:
9788124602140
Size:
7.2"X 9.2"
Pages:
212 (Color Illustrations: 19)
Other Details:
weight of book 453 gms
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$27.00   Shipping Free
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Preface

It is a matter of certain amount of satisfaction that the first edition of this book, published in late 2002, was almost completely sold out by mide - 2006. Although, of late, I am not keeping good health, on the insistence of the students and the members of the Faculty of the National Museum institute, New Delhi, particulary Prof.(Dr.) Anupa Pande, head of the History of Art Department , who kept on going me to do it so very affectionately that I could not refuse. My friends Shri K. N. Dikshit and Sri Trivedi Madneshwar are to some extent also responsible for it. Having once decided to add three new chapters in this edition of the publication- one, dealing with the Rock Art, also called "Prehistoric Art" or "Stone Age Art", second dealing with the " Protohistric Art", or " The Bronze Age Art", same as " The Harappan Art", also called " The Indus" or "the Indus- Sarasvati Art," and the third dealing with the " Indian Art Beyond the Indian frontiers" encompassing the ancient art of some of the neighbouring countries located on the south and the east of India _ Sri Lanka , Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia and Indonesia _ since these countries have shared India's culture for centuries together and producted a lot similar works of art and architecture within their own local matrix.

I will be failing in my duty if I do not record the most valuable assistance I received from my young colleagues in the Indian Archaeological Society, New Delhi, Sarvashri Suresh Bomble and S. Vijayakumar. On the Secretarial and Internet front, Savashri Mohit Srvastava, Lakhan Trivedi and Bharat Singh were of great help, for which I am thankful to them. Ms. Raj Rani, Librarian, helped me by providing most the books I needed.

Lastly, a word of appreciation for Shri Sushil Mittal, the Young and energetic owner of the D. K. Printworld, who lovingly placed a very tall order to me - "Kindly complete it within two weeks Course of the National Museum Institute who have expressed great desire to own the book very soon." Was it not Cruelty? But than I thoroughly enjoyed it.

Back of the Book The book is the study of the fundamental Principles of ancient Indian art and architecture, dealing with essentials of Hindu thinking and practice of art like the Hindu view of Godhead, iconography and iconometry, and symbols and symbolism in Hindu Art. It undertakes a survey of Indian art and Temple architecture from the 3rd century BCE through the mediaeval period. It elaborately views the various terms and concepts associated with the field of art and iconography like mudras, asanas, pithas , explaining the nature of Buddhist and Jain deities as well as those of Hindu sects like Saivism, Vaisnavism and Saktism.

Tracing the differences in conception of a Hindu temple, a Muslim Mosque and a Christian church, the research focuses particulary on the principles of visualization of symbols and signs in Hinduism and Christianity. It also reveals how the West has viewed Indian literature and art, exposing the inner contradictions of some European thinkers who while praising literary works of kalidasa and others condemned the Hindu images.

The work contains more than 400 illustrations, half-tone and line drawings, that make the discussion easy to comprehend for a range of readers- scholars, students as well as laymen.

Dr. S. P. Gupta, born is 1931, presently Chairman, Indian Archaeological Society , New Delhi, is a distinguished archaeologist and art historian . He has authored a Number of books including Disposal of the Dead and physical Types in Ancient India (1971), Tourism, Meseums and Monuments (1975), Archaeology of Soviet Central Asia and the Indian Borderlands two volumes (1978), The roots of Indian Art (1980) and Cultural Tourism in India (2002).

Dr. Shashi Prabha Asthana (1947- 1997) an expert in ancient Indian history and archaeology, won a number of prestigious scholarships and fellowships like Commonwealth Scholarship and British Institute Fellowship. She has authored several monographs and catalogues including History and Archaeology of India's Contacts with other Countries from earliest times to 300 BC (1976), Pre-Harappan Cultures of India and Its Borderlands (1985), Mathura Kala (200), Indian Art through the Ages and Indian Bronzes.

 

Contents
  Preface v
  Preface to the Second Edition vii
  Map of India showing important Art Sites x
  Transliteration Chart xv
  Map of India showing Sites of Principal Temples xvi
1 Rock Art in India 1
  Various kinds of Rock Art 2
  Distribution and Chronology 2
  Bhimbetka 3
  The Purpose of Rock Art 5
  Dating the rock Art 5
  Other Forms of Stone Age Art & Architecture 7
2 The Harappan Art 9
  Materials Used 11
  Subject Matter & Common Motifs 12
  Stone & Bronze Sculptures 13
  Terracottas 14
  Steatite Seals 15
  Pottery Paintings, Metal Art, Glazing, etc. 16
  Harappan Architecture 17
  The Continuity of Harappan Traditions 20
3 Fundamentals of Indian Art 21
  Religion and Art 22
  Hinduism has no Hierarchy Amongst Gods 23
  Hinduism vis-à-vis Chistianity and Islam 24
  The Avataras of Visnu 24
  Buddha: The Life and Teaching 25
  Mahavira: The Life and Teaching 26
  Art and Architecture 27
  Sacred Structures 27
  Hindu Temple 31
  Temples of north India 34
  Temples of South India 40
  Temples of Orissa 44
  The Icons 47
  Symbols 49
  Hindu Iconography 53
  Siva 53
  Visnu 54
  Brahma 55
  The Sakta 55
  The Tantra 63
  Ihamrga 66
  Mythology: What it is in Hinduism? 67
  Buddha 67
  Bodhisattva 68
  Jina 69
  Basic Nature of Indian Art 70
  Paintings 72
  Nine Rasas 75
  Tempera and Fresco Techniques 75
  Differing Attitudes towards Indian Art 77
  The Role of European Travellers Coming with Christian Bias 78
4 Indian Art in Historical Perspective 81
  The Terminology 81
  Vedic Heritage 82
  Mauryan Art (fourth- third centuries BCE) 83
  Sunga- Satavahana Art (second- first centuries BCE) 89
  Kusana Art (First-third centuries CE) 94
  Bactrian, Mathura and Gandhara Schools of Kusana Art 101
  Gupta Art(fourth - Sixth centuries) 103
  Post-Gupta Art - Phase I (Sixth -eighth centuries) 109
  Maitrakas Art (Sixth- seventh centuries) 109
  Early Calukyan Art (sixth- seventh centuries) 110
  Rastrakuta Art (eight- ninth centuries) 110
  Pallava Art (Sixth - eighth centuries) 111
  Post- Gupta Art - Phase II (ninth- twelfth centuries) 112
  Gurjara- Pratihara Art (eighth -tenth centuries) 112
  Cola Art (ninth -twelfth centuries) 112
  Pala Art (eighth -eleventh centuries) 115
  Hoyasala Art (eleventh- thirteenth centuries) 116
  Orissa School (eighth- thirteenth centuries) 117
  Candela Art (tenth- eleventh eleventh centuries) 118
  Other mediaeval Monuments and Art Traditions 119
  North India 119
  South India 119
5 Iconography : The Making of Cult Images 121
  Iconometric Sources 122
  Texts governing the Northern Schools 122
  Texts governing the Southern Schools 122
  Non-iconometric or Sastriya Sources 122
  Tantras 123
  Other Works 124
  Some classifications of Images 125
  Cala or Portable Images 126
  Acala or Stationary Images 126
  Purna or Complete Images 126
  Apurna or Incomplete Images 126
  Santa Images or Images with Pleasing Countence 127
  Asanta Images or Images with Agitated Countenance 127
  Mudras 127
  Hasta- mudras or Hand Poses 128
  Pada- mudras or Foot Poses 133
  Sarira- Mudras or Body poses 134
  Attributes or objects held in hands 135
  Weapons of War and Chase 135
  Household and Agricultural Objects and Implements 137
  Fruits 138
  Flowers 138
  Animal World 139
  Musical Instruments 139
  Others 140
  Asanasor Sitting Postures 141
  Asanas or pithas(pedestals) 142
  Vahanas or Mounts 143
  Mukutas or Headgears 144
  Abhusana or Ornaments 145
  Karnabhusana or Ear ornaments 145
  Kanthabhusana or Neck ornaments 146
  Vaksabhusana or Chest ornaments 146
  Kati-abhusanaor Hip ornaments 147
  Pada- abhusana or Feet ornaments 148
  Bahu and Bhuja- abhusana or Armlets and Wristlets 148
  Nasa-abhusana or Nose ornaments 148
  Paridhana or Dress 148
  Bandha or Belt 148
  Vastra or Cloth 148
  Special dress of the Buddha 149
6 Principals of Iconometry 151
  Tala as main Unit of Measurement 152
  Angula as the First Unit of Measurements 152
  Height and Girth Measurements 152
  Measurements of Different Parts of the Body 153
  Uttam Madhyama and Adhama Measurements 154
  Some Textual Differences 155
7 Indian Art Beyond the Indian Frontiers 157
  Sri Lanka, 159; Myanmar, 162; Thailand, 166; Cambodia, 170; Indonesia, 176  
  Select Bibliography 183
  Index 187
Sample Pages































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