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Religious Debates in Indian Philosophy

Religious Debates in Indian Philosophy
$40.00
Item Code: NAX929
Author: Ravi Prakash 'Babloo'
Publisher: K. K. Publications, Delhi
Language: English
Edition: 2018
ISBN: 9788178442228
Pages: 264
Cover: HARDCOVER
Other Details: 9.00 X 6.00 inch
weight of the book: 0.49 kg
About the Book
RELIGIOUS DEBATES IN INDIAN PHILOSOPHY

Indian philosophy was more decisively established with the Upanishads, the first of which may have been written in the 7th century BC. Early Upanishads, which dominate the late ancient period of thought, were key to the emergence of several classical philosophies. In the Upanishads, views about Brahman and atman were proposed. Buddhism, now a major world religion, also appeared in the ancient period of Indian philosophy. The Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, lived during the 6th century BC. Religious, or spiritual, metaphysics, a field that currently receives little attention among philosophers in academia in the West, considers the question of the nature of a Supreme Being and its relation to the world. Indian Buddhism, Advaita Vedanta, and theistic Vedanta all have contributed to this debate.

Within spiritual metaphysics, an insistence on spiritual monism is probably the most important consideration that Indian thought upholds, though with numerous variations: Much Buddhist philosophy promotes the idea of the interdependence of everything; theistic Vedanta finds no gap between the world and God; and Advaita Vedanta insists that everyone's true self is nothing other than Brahman, the Absolute. This book presents the information on some of the basic concepts of this subject.

About the Author
Dr. Ravi Prakash 'Babloo' is Associate Professor in the Department of Philosophy at Jai Prakash University, Chapra. Authored several research papers; he has participated in many national & international seminars and conferences.

Preface
The oldest literature of Indian thought is the Veda, a collection of poems and hymns composed over several generations beginning as early as 1200 Be. The Veda was composed in Sanskrit, the intellectual language of both ancient and classical Indian civilizations. Four collections were made, so it is said that there are four Vedas. The four as a group carne to be viewed as sacred in Hinduism. Most of the poems of the Veda are religious and tend to be about the activities of various gods. Yet some Vedic hymns and poems address philosophic themes that became important in later periods, such as the henotheism that is key to much Hindu theology. Henotheism is the idea that one God takes many different forms, and that although individuals may worship several different gods and goddesses, they really revere but one Supreme Being.

Indian philosophy was more decisively established with the Upanishads, the first of which may have been written in the 7th century Be. Early Upanishads, which dominate the late ancient period of thought, were key to the emergence of several classical philosophies. In the Upanishads, views about Brahman and atman (one's true self) were proposed. Buddhism, now a major world religion, also appeared in the ancient period of Indian philosophy. The Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, lived during the 6th century Be. He preached a goal of a supreme personal good- enlightenment-that may be compared to the later mystical so- called Brahman-knowledge of Upanishad philosophy. In the reign of the Buddhist emperor Asoka (3rd century BC), an enormous canon of literature, sometimes called the Southern Buddhist Canon, or the Pali Canon, was compiled. Other scriptures, eventually key to a Northern or Mahayana tradition, were composed later. Most of the great classical schools of Indian philosophy, seven or eight in number, were first articulated in texts dating from as early as 100 Be. The founders of these schools are largely unknown except by traditional names-such as Gautama, with the Logic (Nyaya) school, and Badarayana, with Vedanta. Early classical Indian philosophy is expressed in aphoristic (sutra) texts complete with elaborate commentaries. The Sanskrit word sutra means thread and, by extension, an "aphorism" that captures a philosophic tenet in a succinct statement. The sutra texts, usually accompanied with commentaries made by a second great thinker of a tradition, express world views, or philosophies, organized around reasons and arguments. The most outstanding individuals in subsequent classical Indian philosophical writing include Buddhist Idealist Dharmakirti, who lived in the 7th century; Advaita Vedanta Samara, of the 8th century; and Logic philosopher Gangesa, of the 14th century. The writings of these thinkers represented a steady advance in persuasiveness over previous arguments. As a whole, Indian philosophic reasoning and reflection advanced-both in overall sophistication of argument and in the volume and scope of new texts-by the gradual effort of numerous authors.

Religious, or spiritual, metaphysics, a field that currently receives little attention among philosophers in academia in the West, considers the question of the nature of a Supreme Being and its relation to the world. Indian Buddhism, Advaita Vedanta, and theistic Vedanta all have contributed to this debate. Within spiritual metaphysics, an insistence on spiritual monism is probably the most important consideration that Indian thought upholds, though with numerous variations: Much Buddhist philosophy promotes the idea of the interdependence of everything; theistic Vedanta finds no gap between the world and God; and Advaita Vedanta insists that everyone's true self is nothing other than Brahman, the Absolute.

The field of analytic metaphysics, which examines everyday experience and language, IS currently more prominent among Western philosophers. The Indian school of Logic offers a complex theory of generality. The problem of generalities, or universals, has long been debated in Western philosophy.

Book's Contents and Sample Pages








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