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Hindu Philosophy Books: Explore the Teachings of Ancient and Modern Thinkers


Q1. What are the three main principles of Hindu Philosophy?


The following are the three principles


Dharma: This concept implies that it is morally obligatory for every individual to do what is right and lead a pious life.


Karma: This concept implies that every individual has to face the consequence of his or her actions and desires. Good deeds are rewarded and bad deeds are punished.


Moksha:  When an individual dies, his soul lives on by migrating into another body. It means that the soul is immortal and never dies. Reaches enlightenment, which frees a person from suffering and unites the soul with Brahman (Aatmana).

Q2. What is the main idea of Hindu Philosophy?


One of the key thoughts of Hinduism is “atman,” or the belief in the soul. This philosophy holds that living creatures have a soul, and they're all part of the supreme soul. Pursuing Moksha is the ultimate spiritual goal of Hinduism. To reach a point where one detaches himself from the feelings and perceptions that tie him to the world, leading to the realization of the soul (atman) connected with the universal (Brahman). To get to this point, one can pursue various paths: the way of knowledge, the way of appropriate actions or works, or the way of devotion to God.

Q3. What are the 6 systems of Hindu Philosophy?


The Nyaya System : The knowledge could be acquired through: Pratyaksha (intui­tion), Anumana (inference), Upamana (comparison), and Sahda (verbal testimony)


The Vaisesika System : Padartha is of six kinds: substance, quality, activity, generality, particularity, and inherence


Sankhya System : There exist in the universe two active principles called Purusha and Prakriti.


Yoga System : Liberation can be attained only by methods of devotional exer­cises and mental discipline.


The Purva Mimansa : The soul is a reality and is distinct from the body and the senses.


Uttar Mimansa (Vedanta) : The basic text is Brahma Sutras attributed to Badarayana.

Q4. What are the two major philosophies of Hinduism?


Known as Darshan, they are-




Samkhya – A strongly dualist theoretical exposition of consciousness and matter.


Yoga – emphasizes practical use: meditation, contemplation, and liberation.


Nyaya or logic – explores sources of knowledge.


Vaisheshika – A pragmatist school of atomism.


Mimasa – deals with the correct interpretation of the verses in Vedas.


Vedanta – Vedanta is also referred to as Uttara-Mimamsa.




Four nastika do not accept the authority of the Vedas.


Charvaka: accepted the existence of a free will.


Ajivika:  denied the existence of a free will.


Buddhism:   based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha.


Jainism:  based on the teachings of twenty-four teachers or Tirthankaras.101

Q5. What is the original source of Hindu philosophy?


Hinduism, the world's oldest religious tradition founded upon the ancient surviving text of humanity in Sanskrit: the Vedas. Regarded as having been composed around two thousand years before (BCE). Most of the elements of Upanishadic philosophy can be found in their basic form in the Vedas. Historians believe that the Rig-Veda came into existence some 2000 B.C. This Veda contains references to the Varna and Ashram systems, the fundamental elements in the social organization of the Aryans. Shrutis- Veda is considered as the main source of Hindu law. In Hinduism, there are four Vedas namely, Rigveda, Samaveda, Yajurveda, and Atharvaveda.