The study of language is as old as the Vedas. In Krishnayajurveda and other Vedic texts we come across references to the analysis of language. As a matter of fact, language of a particular society, reflects the cultural, intellectual and social development of it. Thus, it bears great significance. In course of time some languages disappear and new languages come into existence. The language like Greek, Latin have now remained as matter of historical importance only. The Sanskrit language has survived against all odds throughout these countries by the strength of its Grammar development by Panini in about 5th Century B.C., the Language Scientist par excellence.
Panini has been explained by many in almost every generation. Vamana & Jayaditya of the past explained the text so lucidly that till recent times their explanation called Kashika has been regarded as authentic. Bhattoji Dikshita of the 17th Century A.D. made a very deep study of both the Ashtadhyayi, Mahabhashya and composed great works of Sanskrit Grammar like Vaiyakaranasiddhanta Kaumudi, Shabdakaustubha, Praudhamanorama and other. He studied some commentaries of Ashtadhyayi like the Kashika and observed some discrepancies in the explanation offered by some commentaries of Ashtadhyayi like the Kashika and observed some discrepancies in the explanation offered by some commentators and had discussed them in his works. He tried to ascertain the authenticity of some grammatical forms on the basis of the Mahabhashya. This reflects the high standard of research of scholars of yore.
Dr. Agasti has discussed about 35 such reference of Kashika in the Kaumudi and shown the relative merit of the views. This work does encourage similar kind of research in the field of Sanskrit grammar. This work presents the view of Kashika and that of Kaumudi and offers discussion. I Congratulate Dr. H. K. Agasti for this commendable effort in Sanskrit Graminatical research and expect constant progress in his academic Endeavour
Kasikavrtti (K.V.) is an earlier composition than Vaiyakarana Siddhantakaumudi (V.S.K.), so it was very much natural for Bhattoji Diksita (B.D.), the author of V.S.K., to fallow Kasika in order to compose V.S.K. Some cases are found in V.S.K. where B.D. explicitly mentioned the name of Kasika, e.g. `iti kasikayam, ‘iti vrttau’, etc. It accepts the view of kasika in some cases while in other cases he rejects on the authority of Mahabhasya by saying ‘tanna, bhasyavirodha or ‘eat bhasyaviruddham or ‘bhasyasamgatih’. In the present work. I have concentrated only on those sutras or cases where B.D. says ‘iti kasikayam’ or ‘vrttau’ etc.
in order to make this work successful the methodology followed is as follows. First of all the sutras where B.D. has mentioned the name of Ka sik, have been collected and these references have been discussed here. Then the References have been searched in the Ka sika text, edited by Prof. Aryendra Sharma from Sanskrit Academy, Osmania University, Hyderabad. This edition has been considered as authentic one. After noting-down the similarities and dissimilarities of two texts (viz. Ka sika & V.S.K.) particularly on the context of References, the five commentaries of V.S.K. are taken into consideration. Then a few cases which are mentioned in V.S.K. but untraceable in Ka sika (Hyderabad edition) have been noted in order to know the fact about these untraceable cases and traceable cases as well, other five available editions of ski have been consulted. Most probably References untraceable in Hyd. Edition, are not found in the other editions also Purpose of discussing the commentaries of V.S.K. is to note the view of those commentaries particularly on those References (both traced and untraced cases). Views of those commentaries whether similar or not, are recorded in the second section of this work. Another purpose of discussing commentaries is to trace out the meaning of the word ‘vrtti’ which is used by B.D. When B.D. writes ‘iti ‘vrttikara’, ‘iti vrtti’, ‘vrttau’ etc. and Reference is not found in Ka sika vrtti (K.V.),question arises as to what does ‘vrtti’ mean, whether it is necessarily K.V. or some other commentary. This is the another purpose of referring commentaries. The view of commentaries have been noted here. In V.S.K. it is found that, B.D. has mentioned some words like, etc. The present study is not concerned with those cases at all. Those cases where he directly says Ka sika or vrtti etc. are considered here.
As the view of K.V. and V.S.K. has been compared in the context of References in particular, the present work can be alled a comparative study. So many works, having comparative study of Ka sika and V.S.K. have been come out. But now here the References of Ka sika mentioned in V.S.K. have been taken into consideration. This is the first attempt made by me to study the References. Works on Ka sika and V.S.K. have been mentioned in order to show that the Reference have not been previously touched. The work shouldn’t be considered as a comparative study of K.V. and V.S.K. in general, rather it is a comparative study in particular, from the Reference point of view. The number of these References, referred to Ka sika or Vrtti etc. is thirty—five. From this study it can be easily assumed that though B.D. has followed Ka sika while composing V.S.K., he has not accepted all the views of Ka sika. He gives more importance to Mahabhasya in comparison with Ka sika.
Besides the grace of the Almighty, many people have been profusely generous and helpful to me in the course of my research tenure. I can not extend my gratitude in a single word, but will have to bestow my thanks, blossom by blossom, upon a few, if not all, persons, who do merit a special kind of tribute y virtue of their assisting me along the way.
First of all, I express a deep sense of gratitude and intellectual indebtedness to my worthy supervisor, Dr Arvind Kumar, Professor, Department of Sanskrit, Pali and Prakrit, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, without whose unique wealth of experience and constant encouragement it would have been possible to give a concrete shape to this work. His final touch made this work able to see the light of day in time.
I am grateful to Dr. Pankaj Chande, Hon’ble Vice Chancellor, Kavi Kulguru Kalidas Sanskrit University, who has always encourage me in my study and granted permission to publish this book through the University.
I personally thank all my Colleagues for their constant support.
My special thanks go to Dr. Malhar Kulkarni, Dept. of Sanskrit, I.I.T. Mumbai, who helped me a lot to collect some important material for this study.
I would like to record my un repayable debt to my revered parents, brother and sister-in-law, whose unseen blessings make me able to achieve the goal.
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