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Buddhavacana
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Buddhavacana
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About the Book

The book titled Buddhavacana resembles a mirror that contains fifteen articles on Important and demanding topics on the academic study of Buddhism, subsuming both Buddhist doctrine and philosophy. Among the incorporated articles, most of them have been contributed by the Editors themselves while the rest were by some other eminent Buddhist scholars. The said topics cover both the traditional and scientific studies. These also apply to the academic field, which are the subsets of religious studies, and are distinet from Buddhist Philosophy or Buddhist theology.

About the Author

Dr. Sanjib Kumar Das

Born tin a middle class family in West Bengal, Dr. Sanjib Kumar Das was educated at Chandpara Primary School (Amtala) and then in Gobardanga Khantura High School. Meanwhile, due to some family problems, he fled away from his home and worked as a waiter in several hotels and sweet shops for about two years in Kolkata. Later, he went to Darjeeling and took shelter in a Buddhist Monastery where he also worked as a helper of mason for about a year. Here, an auspicious co-ineidence came upon in his life that also totally changed his life. On account of the kindness of the Thupten Sanga Choeling Monastery, he was admitted in its branch school where he studied upto standard VIL Subsequently, he was sent to Varanasi in 1989 in order to get admission in the then CIHTS (present CUTS), Sarnath for higher studies. Getting admission, he obtained M.A., pursuing upon Buddhist Philosophy, Tibetan Language and other prescribed subjects. In 1998, he was awarded with the Kashi Naresh Gold Medal tor being the best student of 1998. After completing M.A., he started doing his Ph.D. which he completed in 2002. In 1999, he was invited as a Translator from Tibetan into English to Taiwan Where he staved for about five months. In 2002, he got a temporary job in the Translation Department in CIHTS, Sarnath and simultaneously a permanent in CIBS, Leh where he worked for about six years. In 2008, he got a new job in Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan where he is working now on the post of Associate Professor in the Department of Indo-Tibetan Studies and Guest Leeturer in the Department of Buddhist Studies, Calcutta University. Dr. Das translated, edited, restored, compiled and composed several books which have been published by different universities and institutions in India. Apart from translation, compilation, restoration and editing work, Dr. Das attended numbers of Local, National and International seminars, and presented papers which have also been published.

Geshe Dakpa Kalsang

Born in India in 1964, Geshe Dakpa Kalsang received ordination and became a monk in 1972 in Drepung Loseling, South-India. Followed by it, he completely studied the five major volumes of teachings and so on for twenty-four years. A fier securing the first position in the Geshe Lharampa examination in 1996, Geshe La continued special study on tantra in the Gvudnie Tantric Monastic Institution for about one and halfvears. Thereafter, on behalfot the monastic institution, he made a trip to ULS.A. for ene and half vears, and delivered lectures on Buddhist philosophy in several institutions and universities. In 2002, he gota permanent job in the Central Institute of Buddhist Studies, Leh on the post of lecturer, In 2010, he was upgraded to the post of Reader in the same instaton, Apart from editing a book titled "Mahayana-Uttaratantra: A Commentary on Madhyamika’. Geshe La also attended a number of:national and international conferences and submitted papers which are‘also published in different journals and books.

Foreword

It is matter of great pleasure that the Department of Indo-Tibetan Studies, Bhasha-Bhavana, Visva-Bharti is going to publish a book this year "Buddhavacana" containing fifteen important articles in English contributed by eminent traditional scholars. In fact, making relevant books accessible published by the department is one of the main objectives of the department. I hope this volume will definitely be helpful for the scholars and researchers of Indo-Tibetan Studies.

I take this opportunity to convey my good wishes to the editors of the book Dr. Sanjib Kumar Das, Associate Professor, Department of Indo- Tibetan Studies and Dr. Geshe Dakpa Kalsang, Reader, CIBS, Leh, for bringing out the publication.

Introduction

Ours is the era of science and technology. In this era tremendous progress has been made externally in the material sciences by which human beings in particular are benefitted a lot. In fact science is defined to be a way of helping the brain grow in finding new knowledge and helps us defeat our curiosity of how the world develops and works today. It is everywhere in today’s world. Its development, findings and discoveries have become an unavoidable part of our daily lives. Advances in technology and science are transforming our world at an incredible pace, and our children’s future seems surely be filled with leaps in technology we can only imagine. Undoubtedly the role of science 1s significant in our daily life. The various gifts of science have made our life more comfortable. It is because it has invaded every branch of modern life; the things that we use in our daily life are mostly due to science; it has conquered time and distance; it has added tremendously to the comforts and conveniences of mankind; the fan, light, medicine etc., are the wonders of modern science.

A question may arise here in the human mind as despite of such unprecedented and incredible developments and discoveries are the human beings living in peace, comforts and contents in true sense? Is not there something that they lack for which internally there remains a very great need for a corresponding development? As an editor of the book, we can easily answer ‘Yes’ because I have to do it for the dignity of my book. But it should not be in actuality. It is because since we are intellectual and rational human beings, we have to think, ponder and introspect on it in order to find out the agreeable answer. If we roughly think, we will definitely come to a conclusion that despite of such tremendous progress man has now become a slave of machine for which he has to lead an extremely busy life. He must try to be master of scientific appliances and not their slaves. The very silly thing is that although today man is equipped with the wonders and discoveries as if everything is in his fist, yet he does not have any spare time to have his breakfast, lunch or dinner in a comfortable way. If it is so, what to say about spending some time with his family peacefully and happily! Has man ever expected such life? Obviously not! What type of life did man expect? I think man expected a life full of comfortable, peace, happiness and relaxation. According to Buddhist philosophy, such life is achieved through the practice of dharma, especially through contemplation and meditation. Therefore human beings need to understand what contemplation and meditation are and how to practise them.

Buddhism is a science, particularly the science of mind. It is because Buddhism emphasizes on the study of the meritorious and demeritorious aspects of the mind. It does not mean that Buddhism stands aloof from the merits and demerits of body and speech. Of course Buddhism is well concerned about them, but the function and activities done by them are caused and motivated by the mind. That is why Buddhism lays stress on how to gain control over the mind. Buddha says in Dhammapada that mind is the chief and forerunner among all [1:1]. For this reason, it gives emphasis to straighten and discipline it. He also says in the same text:

One should not commit any unwholesome thing.

One should accumulate wholesome things.

One should subdue his mind wholly.

This is the teachings of the Buddha. [14:5]

Further, he also states:

One is oneself one’s Master,

Who else could be?

By controlling oneself,

One will attain the rare Mastery (nirvana). [7:4]

Similarly, one of the Buddhist philosophical schools propounds that all phenomena are of the entity of the mind. So, like these, there are number of verses and sentences in Buddhist scriptures in which the Buddha and his successors have very clearly accentuated to control the mind, other than the body and speech. The reason is that mind 1s the origin of all unwholesome and wholesome things. This mind produces the view at self and others and the view of transitory collection which simultaneously gives birth to attachment towards oneself and hatred towards others. As a result of these attachment and hatred, all other secondary delusions are produced. These delusions amass bad karmas and the bad karmas bring forth suffering of samsara throughout births to rebirths. On the other hand, when the mind is attracted to the wholesome direction, it causes to accumulate merits which bring forth positive result. Thus, it is clear that the mind is the root of all negative and positive results.

Regarding the issue of controlling the mind, two or three basic questions may arise here— Why should we control the mind?, How should we control the mind? And what is the result of controlling the mind?

Regarding the first question, it is known to all that the samsara is full of sufferings. Every sentient being undergoes the suffering on account of various karmas. It is because our mind and mental factors are under the control of kleshas for which we continue to experience various sufferings in samsara. If that is abandoned, liberation is attained; therefore we must principally eliminate the kleshas such as attachment, hatred and ignorance. Although there are multi-type of kleshas but those are summarized into three— attachment, hatred and ignorance. Every contaminated karma is done by one of the three doors (body, speech and mind) duly motivated by the kleshas, and mind acts as the forerunner of them. Therefore, till the mind is controlled, grasping at aggregate, grasping at ego, grasping at me etc., is liable to arise which gives rise to commit various types of unwholesome actions. Thus, grasping at ego or ego- fixation is the root of all kleshas that arises in us on account of ignorance. Therefore, on account of the ego-fixation, different types of karmas are done out of self-interest which leads one to cycle in this samsara through birth to rebirth undergoing variety of suffering. Nagarjuna said in Ratnavali (Precious Garland):

**Contents and Sample Pages**









Buddhavacana

Item Code:
NAU416
Cover:
HARDCOVER
Edition:
2018
ISBN:
9789380852874
Language:
English
Size:
10.00 X 7.00 inch
Pages:
252
Other Details:
Weight of the Book: 0.51 Kg
Price:
$43.00
Discounted:
$34.40   Shipping Free
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$8.60 (20%)
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About the Book

The book titled Buddhavacana resembles a mirror that contains fifteen articles on Important and demanding topics on the academic study of Buddhism, subsuming both Buddhist doctrine and philosophy. Among the incorporated articles, most of them have been contributed by the Editors themselves while the rest were by some other eminent Buddhist scholars. The said topics cover both the traditional and scientific studies. These also apply to the academic field, which are the subsets of religious studies, and are distinet from Buddhist Philosophy or Buddhist theology.

About the Author

Dr. Sanjib Kumar Das

Born tin a middle class family in West Bengal, Dr. Sanjib Kumar Das was educated at Chandpara Primary School (Amtala) and then in Gobardanga Khantura High School. Meanwhile, due to some family problems, he fled away from his home and worked as a waiter in several hotels and sweet shops for about two years in Kolkata. Later, he went to Darjeeling and took shelter in a Buddhist Monastery where he also worked as a helper of mason for about a year. Here, an auspicious co-ineidence came upon in his life that also totally changed his life. On account of the kindness of the Thupten Sanga Choeling Monastery, he was admitted in its branch school where he studied upto standard VIL Subsequently, he was sent to Varanasi in 1989 in order to get admission in the then CIHTS (present CUTS), Sarnath for higher studies. Getting admission, he obtained M.A., pursuing upon Buddhist Philosophy, Tibetan Language and other prescribed subjects. In 1998, he was awarded with the Kashi Naresh Gold Medal tor being the best student of 1998. After completing M.A., he started doing his Ph.D. which he completed in 2002. In 1999, he was invited as a Translator from Tibetan into English to Taiwan Where he staved for about five months. In 2002, he got a temporary job in the Translation Department in CIHTS, Sarnath and simultaneously a permanent in CIBS, Leh where he worked for about six years. In 2008, he got a new job in Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan where he is working now on the post of Associate Professor in the Department of Indo-Tibetan Studies and Guest Leeturer in the Department of Buddhist Studies, Calcutta University. Dr. Das translated, edited, restored, compiled and composed several books which have been published by different universities and institutions in India. Apart from translation, compilation, restoration and editing work, Dr. Das attended numbers of Local, National and International seminars, and presented papers which have also been published.

Geshe Dakpa Kalsang

Born in India in 1964, Geshe Dakpa Kalsang received ordination and became a monk in 1972 in Drepung Loseling, South-India. Followed by it, he completely studied the five major volumes of teachings and so on for twenty-four years. A fier securing the first position in the Geshe Lharampa examination in 1996, Geshe La continued special study on tantra in the Gvudnie Tantric Monastic Institution for about one and halfvears. Thereafter, on behalfot the monastic institution, he made a trip to ULS.A. for ene and half vears, and delivered lectures on Buddhist philosophy in several institutions and universities. In 2002, he gota permanent job in the Central Institute of Buddhist Studies, Leh on the post of lecturer, In 2010, he was upgraded to the post of Reader in the same instaton, Apart from editing a book titled "Mahayana-Uttaratantra: A Commentary on Madhyamika’. Geshe La also attended a number of:national and international conferences and submitted papers which are‘also published in different journals and books.

Foreword

It is matter of great pleasure that the Department of Indo-Tibetan Studies, Bhasha-Bhavana, Visva-Bharti is going to publish a book this year "Buddhavacana" containing fifteen important articles in English contributed by eminent traditional scholars. In fact, making relevant books accessible published by the department is one of the main objectives of the department. I hope this volume will definitely be helpful for the scholars and researchers of Indo-Tibetan Studies.

I take this opportunity to convey my good wishes to the editors of the book Dr. Sanjib Kumar Das, Associate Professor, Department of Indo- Tibetan Studies and Dr. Geshe Dakpa Kalsang, Reader, CIBS, Leh, for bringing out the publication.

Introduction

Ours is the era of science and technology. In this era tremendous progress has been made externally in the material sciences by which human beings in particular are benefitted a lot. In fact science is defined to be a way of helping the brain grow in finding new knowledge and helps us defeat our curiosity of how the world develops and works today. It is everywhere in today’s world. Its development, findings and discoveries have become an unavoidable part of our daily lives. Advances in technology and science are transforming our world at an incredible pace, and our children’s future seems surely be filled with leaps in technology we can only imagine. Undoubtedly the role of science 1s significant in our daily life. The various gifts of science have made our life more comfortable. It is because it has invaded every branch of modern life; the things that we use in our daily life are mostly due to science; it has conquered time and distance; it has added tremendously to the comforts and conveniences of mankind; the fan, light, medicine etc., are the wonders of modern science.

A question may arise here in the human mind as despite of such unprecedented and incredible developments and discoveries are the human beings living in peace, comforts and contents in true sense? Is not there something that they lack for which internally there remains a very great need for a corresponding development? As an editor of the book, we can easily answer ‘Yes’ because I have to do it for the dignity of my book. But it should not be in actuality. It is because since we are intellectual and rational human beings, we have to think, ponder and introspect on it in order to find out the agreeable answer. If we roughly think, we will definitely come to a conclusion that despite of such tremendous progress man has now become a slave of machine for which he has to lead an extremely busy life. He must try to be master of scientific appliances and not their slaves. The very silly thing is that although today man is equipped with the wonders and discoveries as if everything is in his fist, yet he does not have any spare time to have his breakfast, lunch or dinner in a comfortable way. If it is so, what to say about spending some time with his family peacefully and happily! Has man ever expected such life? Obviously not! What type of life did man expect? I think man expected a life full of comfortable, peace, happiness and relaxation. According to Buddhist philosophy, such life is achieved through the practice of dharma, especially through contemplation and meditation. Therefore human beings need to understand what contemplation and meditation are and how to practise them.

Buddhism is a science, particularly the science of mind. It is because Buddhism emphasizes on the study of the meritorious and demeritorious aspects of the mind. It does not mean that Buddhism stands aloof from the merits and demerits of body and speech. Of course Buddhism is well concerned about them, but the function and activities done by them are caused and motivated by the mind. That is why Buddhism lays stress on how to gain control over the mind. Buddha says in Dhammapada that mind is the chief and forerunner among all [1:1]. For this reason, it gives emphasis to straighten and discipline it. He also says in the same text:

One should not commit any unwholesome thing.

One should accumulate wholesome things.

One should subdue his mind wholly.

This is the teachings of the Buddha. [14:5]

Further, he also states:

One is oneself one’s Master,

Who else could be?

By controlling oneself,

One will attain the rare Mastery (nirvana). [7:4]

Similarly, one of the Buddhist philosophical schools propounds that all phenomena are of the entity of the mind. So, like these, there are number of verses and sentences in Buddhist scriptures in which the Buddha and his successors have very clearly accentuated to control the mind, other than the body and speech. The reason is that mind 1s the origin of all unwholesome and wholesome things. This mind produces the view at self and others and the view of transitory collection which simultaneously gives birth to attachment towards oneself and hatred towards others. As a result of these attachment and hatred, all other secondary delusions are produced. These delusions amass bad karmas and the bad karmas bring forth suffering of samsara throughout births to rebirths. On the other hand, when the mind is attracted to the wholesome direction, it causes to accumulate merits which bring forth positive result. Thus, it is clear that the mind is the root of all negative and positive results.

Regarding the issue of controlling the mind, two or three basic questions may arise here— Why should we control the mind?, How should we control the mind? And what is the result of controlling the mind?

Regarding the first question, it is known to all that the samsara is full of sufferings. Every sentient being undergoes the suffering on account of various karmas. It is because our mind and mental factors are under the control of kleshas for which we continue to experience various sufferings in samsara. If that is abandoned, liberation is attained; therefore we must principally eliminate the kleshas such as attachment, hatred and ignorance. Although there are multi-type of kleshas but those are summarized into three— attachment, hatred and ignorance. Every contaminated karma is done by one of the three doors (body, speech and mind) duly motivated by the kleshas, and mind acts as the forerunner of them. Therefore, till the mind is controlled, grasping at aggregate, grasping at ego, grasping at me etc., is liable to arise which gives rise to commit various types of unwholesome actions. Thus, grasping at ego or ego- fixation is the root of all kleshas that arises in us on account of ignorance. Therefore, on account of the ego-fixation, different types of karmas are done out of self-interest which leads one to cycle in this samsara through birth to rebirth undergoing variety of suffering. Nagarjuna said in Ratnavali (Precious Garland):

**Contents and Sample Pages**









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