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Books > Performing Arts > Music > Sources of Research in Indian Classical Music
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Sources of Research in Indian Classical Music
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Sources of Research in Indian Classical Music
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About the Book

The main object of this book is to help music students embarking for the fulfilment of research studies as well as those who wish to take up surveys in the various fields of music. Many researchers find a paucity of literature on music research to give them a master key for their studies. Keeping in view the increasing role of research in music, this attempt has been made to explain as clearly and directly as possible, the important steps needed for music research. It is based on an interdisciplinary approach and written in a simple and easy language. The book is one of its own kind due to its subject matter and fulfils the long felt need of music researchers about the techniques and sources of research in Indian music.

The work shall be useful to the M.Phil. students of music as there is no available material relevant to their subject and for the 'Research Methodology' paper. This book tries to present sincere efforts to deal the subject matter in a brief but systematic manner. Basically the approach adopted here is one that of a step by step sequence. It is an attempt to describe various sources like primary and secondary, their collection and determination of the authenticity of these sources, with special reference to Indian music.

This book has been designed to familiarise the students with the basic concept of research and it is hoped that this will be welcomed by those for whom it is designed.

About the Author

Reena Gautam Baloria has been a student of faculty of Music and Fine Arts, /University of Delhi. She took specialised in Instrumental Music 'Sitar' at Graduation and Post Gradution level. She has done her M.Phil, under the supervision of Dr. Anupama Mahajan in first class. She is presently working as a music teacher in Delhi Administration for over a decade.

Preface

"Art is the vital force of a nation, the fountain from which the national life is inspired and sustained. In India, as no where else, her splendid art has been the essential basis of culture, the over powering tendency of her soul always illumining the mind of man, exalting his heart and enriching his life. It is doubtful, if any other country in the world can display such wealth of artistic activity, remarkable for a great depth of feeling and imaginative creativeness, or offer anything equal to the highest attainment of Indians in this sphere."

Having been a student in the faculty of Music, Delhi Uni8versity for more than a decade, I was prompted to choose this topic. The present research work is an ambitious one. Nevertheless, I attempted it because I am convinced that there is an urgent need for taking a fresh look at music research.

The Webster's International Dictionary proposes a very inclusive definition of research, "a careful critical inquiry or examination in seeking facts or principles, diligent investigation in order to ascertain something." This definition while helpful in indicating in a very general way what people mean when they talk research, is not specific and precise enough to give us a complete and clear idea of what research involves. Name of research involve mainly a 're-search' i.e. activities refers to 'a critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation having as its aim the revision of accepted conclusions in light of newly discovered facts'. The function of research is to add new knowledge to its existing store, but its power of cleansing our mind. Research is now become the prime goal all over the world. Numerous problems have been solved by it and uncountable problems are still to be solved.

Research in the humanities-literature, music and fine arts enhances the quality of life. While other disciplines deal with biological and economic realities. Although music is entertainment, classical music, specially because of its rigorous discipline and its theory bonds with the past tradition keeps us close to our cultural values e.g. A performer belonging to the modern generation during his performance wear traditional clothes, copies traditional gestures, like bowing to his elder's etc. However, a look at the history of music shows that the Natya sastra and other granthas (textbook) follow an established pattern of inquiry. Art and Theory are both valid and complementary "Can we say Raman's cogitation on colours are less beautiful than Nandlal Bose's painting? (Deva, S.N.A. 1970, p. 6).

The methods given in Research methodology books of other disciplines are not easily adaptable to music is a complex art and a taste for it, is acquired over a number of years. Special techniques have to be devised to elicit responses from listeners of classical music. There is a popular fallacy that music can only be demonstrated and not written about. Music as a descriptive suffers from lack of research, so less research has been done in music than in the social sciences. Most artists feel that it is not possible to express anything their art with more words, they feel happy when they demonstrate their point by singing rather than by talking. While this is true of certain aspects like comparing two ragas, showing the shape and texture of 'gamakas' and also there are many great aspects that can be covered by language, e.g. Biographies of great musicians, study of sahitya and its decorative 'angas', sources of patronage, critical evaluation of trends and philosophical background of our Indian music.

In the present book, an attempt has been made to provide basic guidelines on research. In it, I discussed the subject matter of research. The merits, demerits, various methods like historical, case study, interviews etc. are also covered in it. Various steps mentioned in a research like selection of problem.

The First Introductory Chapter Content
(a) What is Research: In simple word research can be defined as any scholarly investigation in search for truth. Systematized efforts to gain new knowledge are also known as research. Some of the generally accepted definitions of research by well-known scholars are quoted in this part. A research being a fact finding inquiry as certain characteristics of its own, so some of them are mentioned here.

(b) Research in Music: Research in Indian music should be under stood in the light of the uniqueness of Indian thought and values. For it, the research has been finding new fact and it is theoretical as well as practical. Indian music is very rich is traditions and has changed through a very slow process, so new in Indian classical music is not easy to locate. The findings of research in some area of science may be truly dramatic but research in the field of performing art cannot be spectacular.

(c) Varieties of Research: Several methods or types are being used in research e. g. Pure, Action, Experimental. Any one of them can be used, but it must be carried out one on a set pattern and its result should be reliable.

Second Chapter Includes
(a) Selection of Research Problem: Topic selection is an area of primary importance for the secret of success in research. The formulation problem will have very few difficulties in the investigation of the problem.

(b) Formulation of Research Problem: The practical usefulness of the problem plays a significant role in guiding a research worker in selection of data. Formulation of the problems is a important step in research work. He should determine the right kind of research plan or methodology is suited for his research problem.

(c) Hypothesis: A research scholar can not go ahead in a systematic manner with his problems for investigations, without getting some kind of guidance. Such guidance is provided by a hypothesis, which prevent him from grouping in the dark. It has a very important place in research work because without it, research worker cannot proceed in his work. Hypothesis may be de developed from a variety of sources e.g. theory, personal experience etc. By discussing the characteristic of good hypothesis, it comes to know that hypothesizes performs their designated functions vis-a-vis research and the growth of knowledge generally.

(d) Collection of Data (Primary and Secondary): After formulating a problem, hypothesis, the next step is a assembling the data, standardized research tools may be used for data collection and it begin when most of the things pertaining to the nature and mode of enquiry. Data can be interpreted easily and objectively. They are directly linked wih conclusions and are always collected with a sense of purpose. Data are may be either Primary and Secondary. Primary sources are the first appear and the secondary came next. The distinction between these two is very subtle.

Third Chapter only Deals with Primary Sources: In this we discuss various types of methods the interview, questionnaires, historical, case study etc. their advantages and disadvantages, merits, demerits, their types with examples.

Fourth and Final Chapter Contents only secondary sources with their varieties like sculpture, paintings, paintings, manuscripts, text books, oral traditions, by them, 'we not only come to know our great glorious past of our classical music but also its changes from past to past to present, its various instruments, their changed structure from present, valuable old textbooks, musical gharanas, new discoveries of science used in music e.g. C.D., tapes, A.I.R.'s contribution in expanding our soothing lyrics etc.

I do not claim that the matter contained in this book is original, as the ideas of several learned researches scholars have been gathered and quoted in this work. A list of these standard books is given in the bibliography. I have mainly employed sources from books, periodicals, references in the literature, printed materials, sculptures, paintings interviews, radios and live concert. It provides factual knowledge, which encourages independent thinking a growing under-standing and increased appreciation of fundamental principals and values in music.

Introduction

Why a research on music? Music is meant to be listened to and enjoyed, not to be read and thought about, as some of our music lovers say that 'music is an art, the fantastic, sophisticated pleasing art of sound. It is a performing art, to be learnt practically from a guru through oral tradition method'. But there is another aspect of this art, made up of its history, its norms, and its forms and formal rules, its style and, together with these, its ethnic and social implications. The study of the inter-relationship and development of all these would certainly improve one's understanding of this beautiful art. "If the art of music be so natural to man that vocal melody is practiced wherever articulate sounds are used, there can be diatonic sounds, when we observe how early children adopt the language of their amusements to measure and melody, however rude, when we consider how early and universally these practices take place there is no avoiding the conclusion, that the idea of music is conatural to man and implied in the original principles of his constitution,"

The history of Indian music, in common with that of other arts and sciences, furnishes us with similar instruction. It first origin seems to have been to convey the idea of our passions to others. In progress of time, when language arrived to a certain degree of intelligibility, its use to began to be restricted to the worship of the Supreme being. All music lovers commonly know that Indian classical music has its origin in the Sama veda. Yet the singing of the Sama veda has practically disappeared from our country, so if we want to explore the details of the origin of Indian classical music from Sama veda, we have to study the philosophy of the word 'Sama'. And for this we have to take the help of research. In other words we can say as history and science are complementary to each other. The science of Indian music (theory) owes its existence to the different stages of development in the course of its evolution and its importance as historical concepts in Indian music. Materials collected from the various sources play, the greatest and in establishing, the validity in Indian music. And for this we go back to research methodology, which guides us to the rules and regulations of the process of research.

"Every research work ought to have a practical impact and evidence beyond intellectual hypothesis" (S.v. Rai, S.N. 45 p. 55) . A History student can write on the social life and culture of Bharata's time because it is valuable for history as a discipline to know what it was likes in those days. The situation of a music research is different. If he is writing about the Natya sastra or the cultural background at that time, he should bring out the relevance of this information to the music and the cultural background of the present.

What is Research
Curiosity is a distinctive feature of us and we are always ready to know about ourselves and our universe. Questions are always arising in our mind. Whenever we encounter problems, we try to find solutions to them. Finding answers to various problems has given toe progress to human life. Research is composed of two words 're' and 'search', which means to search again or a careful investigation to re-understand or re-examine the fact or to search them. A systematic search for an answer to a question or a solution to a problem is called 'Research'. Research denotes original investigation leading to new knowledge. "The word research has been derived from the French word 'rechercher', 're' and 'cercer' modern 'chercher', to search. These words put together mean a critical examination into a topic or subject to discover new facts for increasing sum total of human knowledge,"?

The origin of research is curiosity. It, therefore means a continued search for knowledge and understanding. As long as man's inquisitive pursuits do not end, the onward march of human society to more advanced achievements will not stop. It is an organized inquiry.' It seeks to find explanation to unexplained phenomenon, to clarify the doubtful facts and to correct the misconceived facts. Karlinger defines research as a "systematic, controlled, empirical and critical investigation of hypothetical proposition about the presumed relation among natural phenomena." Research does not always call for hypotheses. It may also be carried out for the discovery of hypothesis. Research in common parlance refers to a search for knowledge. One can also define research as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. In fact, research is an art of scientific investigation. The Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English Laydown the meaning of research as, "a careful investigation or inquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge,"? Red men and Mory define research as a "systematized effort to gain new knowledge."

The Websters International Dictionary proposes a very incisive definition of research, "a careful critical inquiry of examination in seeking facts or principles, diligent investigation in order to ascertain something". This definition indicates in a very general way what people mean by research. It is also specific to give us a complete and clear idea of what research involves.

And also Webster's third new international dictionary of the English Language (1981, Vol. 2, 1930) defines research as "a studious inquiry or examination especially. Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation having for its aim, the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or practical applications of new or revised conclusions, theories or laws" George A Lund Berg says, " ... sufficiently objective and systematic to make possible classification, generalisation and verification of the data observed". The New Century Dictionary: "A searching made for something especially with care also, a continued careful enquiry or investigation into a subjects in order to discover facts or principles". "It is essentially a systematic inquiry seeking facts through objective verifiable methods in order to discover the relationship among them and to deduce from them broad principles or Laws".-M.H. Gopal,?

This is a definition of research in the general sense. According to Moaly, "Actually research is simply the process of arriving at dependable solutions to problems, through the planned and systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of data." (Mouly 1964, p. 4) Fox says "We must know what we do and why we do, we must also known what ways we have considered and rejected and why" (Fox 1969, p. V). According to John Best, "Research is a more systematic activity directed towards discovery and the development of an organised body of knowledge.! In other words "Research is considered to be the more formal systematic intensive process of carrying on the scientific method of analysis. It involves a more systematic structure of investigation usually resulting in some sort of formal record of procedures and a report of results or conclusions.

Research is an honest, exhaustive, intelligent searching for facts and their meanings of implications with reference to given problem. It is the process of arriving at dependable solutions to problems through the planned and systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of data. The best research is that, which is reliable, verifiable and exhaustive so that at provides information in which we have confidence. - P.M Cook.

Research is a systematic and refined technique of thinking, employing specialised tools, instruments and procedures in order to obtain a more adequate solution of a problem them would be possible under ordinary means. It starts with a problem, collects data or facts analysis than critically and reaches decision, based on the actual evidence. - C.C. Crawford.

Clifford Woody defines research as " ... research per se constitutes a method for the discovery of truth which is really a method of critical thinking. It comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions, collecting, organizing and evaluating data, making deductions and reaching conclusions and at last, carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulated hypotheses". He further states, "Research ... , is a method for the discovery of new knowledge that is, a method by which is ... mended the existing body of organized facts, ideals and aspiration,"

The name of research involves mainly a 're-search' activities undertaken to repeat a search and it may be stated that research refers to "a critical and exhaustive or experimentation having as its aim the revision of accepted conclusions in the light of newly discovered facts,"!" "The obvious function of research is to add new knowledge to the existing store, but its power for cleaning our mind of cliches and removing the rubbish of applicable theory is equally notable,"

In short, the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solution to a problem is research. Thus, re-searching may be effective to turn the construction of new theories to take the place of those are no longer able to fit the data of the empirical world. Research, stated otherwise, is a systematic attempt to push back the bounds of comprehension or a seek beyond the horizon of our knowledge some 'truth', some reality, to keep on extending and also consolidating these horizons without end.

Young detines Research as "a scientific undertaking which, by means of logical and systematic techniques aims to – (a) Discover new fact or verify and test old facts, (b) Analyse their sequences, inter-relationships and causal explanation, (c) Develop new scientific tools, concepts and theories which would facilitate reliable and valid study of human behaviour."

The urge of human brain to re-examine and to understand things may rightly be called 'research' at least to begin with. Research, therefore has been an integral part of academic pursuit in the past. It may not only be for academic interest but for more human enlightenment that one should study history to understand the dimensional development of mankind. The first step, therefore, in the development of the concept of research was to think systematically.

The primary purpose of research is to discover principals that have universal applications. Research is the formal systematic and intensive process of carrying on the scientific method of analysis.

Characteristic of Research

- Research is systematic: It is a structured process. It has carefully designed procedures. Research is rarely a blind, shot gun investigation.

- Research is logical and objective, applying every possible test to validate the procedures employed, the data collected, and the conclusion reached. The emphasis of the researcher is as testing rather than proving the hypothesis.

- Research is empirical. It is the collection of data that identifies research as an empirical process. Research is based upon observable experience or empirical evidence. Research rejects revelation as methods of establishing knowledge. It accepts only what can be verified by empirical observation.

- Research is directed toward the solution of problem. It may attempt to answer or to determine the relation between two or more variables. It discovers the cause and effect relationship variables.

- Research emphasis the development of generalization, principles or theories. Research is more than information, retrieval or the simple gathering or information.

- Research demands accurate observation and description. It uses quantitative measuring devices, the most precise form of description. It requires valid data gathering procedures. It may employ mechanical electronic or psychometric devices to refine observation, description and analysis of data.

- Research is reductive, as a part of the attempts to translate from reality to an abstract or conceptual state. Reductionism enables research to play an explanatory role rather than simply a descriptive role.

- Research requires carefully designed procedures that apply rigorous analysis.

- Research requires expertise: The researcher knows what is already known about the problem and how other has investigated it. This is thoroughly grounded in the terminology concepts and technical skills necessary to understand and analyze the data that gathered.

- Research is replicable and transmittable. Previous important studies are deliberately repeated using identical or similar producers with different subjects, different settings and a different time. Replication is always desirable to confirm or to raise questions about the conclusions of previous study. Research is considerably less transitory in nature then the products of other problem solving processes.

- Research is characterised by patient and unhurried activity. It is rarely spectacular.

- Research sometimes requires courage o face the position.

- Research tells us relationship between cause that one effects. It is directed towards what is the solution of the problem or to answer of a question.

- Research demands accurate investigation and description.

- Research involves gathering of new data from primary or secondary sources.

- Research requires deep knowledge in the subject concerned.

- Research was born out solve the main problems.

Thus the purpose of the research is to serve human beings. The knowledge gained by research is of the highest order. It is not based on assumptions, beliefs and untested generalization. The term 'research' is used to the more systematic and formal research as the systematic objective, an accurate research for the solution to a well-defined problem.

In a short way we can write:
(a) Research is directed towards the solution of a problem.

(b) Research is based upon observable experience or empirical evidence.

(c) Research demands accurate observation and description.

Mere collection of fact and presenting them in a systematic ways, summarizing a book or an article or telling an old thing cannot be considered as 'research', because it provides no original contribution to knowledge. Research is an art, involving appreciation and expression and is an effective form of training in advanced types of reflective compositions. It helps the researcher to acquire a thorough knowledge of the topic under investigation. It also provided an indispensable technique for future research workers to find out, what methods and procedures of particular import have been applied? What literature of selected investigations has been covered, and what contributions have been made to arrive at the solutions of the problem under investigation.

Contents

  Acknowledgements v
  Preface vii
  List of Illustrations xi
1 Sources of Research in Indian Classical Music 1-16
  Introduction  
  What is Research  
  Research in Music  
  Varieties of Research  
2 Selection of Research Problem 17-30
  Introduction  
  Formulating the Research Problem  
  Hypotheses  
  Sources of Hypothesis  
  Collection of Data  
3 Primary Sources 31-59
  Introduction  
  Primary Sources  
  Questionnaire  
  Observation  
  Interview  
  Historical Method  
  Surveys  
  Case Study Method  
  Phases  
4 Secondary Sources 60-165
  Introduction  
  Sculpture  
  Painting  
  Musical Pillars and Stones  
  Coins  
  Epigraphy and Inscription  
  Manuscripts  
  Text books  
  Oral Tradition  
  Composition and Notation  
  Journal and Articles  
  Dictionaries  
  Bibliographies  
  All India Radio  
  Gramophones, Tapes, C.D.  
  Computer Discs  
Appendix Interviews and Articles 166-214
  Conclusion 215-216
  Bibliography 217-220
  Index 221-224

 

Sample Pages
















Sources of Research in Indian Classical Music

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About the Book

The main object of this book is to help music students embarking for the fulfilment of research studies as well as those who wish to take up surveys in the various fields of music. Many researchers find a paucity of literature on music research to give them a master key for their studies. Keeping in view the increasing role of research in music, this attempt has been made to explain as clearly and directly as possible, the important steps needed for music research. It is based on an interdisciplinary approach and written in a simple and easy language. The book is one of its own kind due to its subject matter and fulfils the long felt need of music researchers about the techniques and sources of research in Indian music.

The work shall be useful to the M.Phil. students of music as there is no available material relevant to their subject and for the 'Research Methodology' paper. This book tries to present sincere efforts to deal the subject matter in a brief but systematic manner. Basically the approach adopted here is one that of a step by step sequence. It is an attempt to describe various sources like primary and secondary, their collection and determination of the authenticity of these sources, with special reference to Indian music.

This book has been designed to familiarise the students with the basic concept of research and it is hoped that this will be welcomed by those for whom it is designed.

About the Author

Reena Gautam Baloria has been a student of faculty of Music and Fine Arts, /University of Delhi. She took specialised in Instrumental Music 'Sitar' at Graduation and Post Gradution level. She has done her M.Phil, under the supervision of Dr. Anupama Mahajan in first class. She is presently working as a music teacher in Delhi Administration for over a decade.

Preface

"Art is the vital force of a nation, the fountain from which the national life is inspired and sustained. In India, as no where else, her splendid art has been the essential basis of culture, the over powering tendency of her soul always illumining the mind of man, exalting his heart and enriching his life. It is doubtful, if any other country in the world can display such wealth of artistic activity, remarkable for a great depth of feeling and imaginative creativeness, or offer anything equal to the highest attainment of Indians in this sphere."

Having been a student in the faculty of Music, Delhi Uni8versity for more than a decade, I was prompted to choose this topic. The present research work is an ambitious one. Nevertheless, I attempted it because I am convinced that there is an urgent need for taking a fresh look at music research.

The Webster's International Dictionary proposes a very inclusive definition of research, "a careful critical inquiry or examination in seeking facts or principles, diligent investigation in order to ascertain something." This definition while helpful in indicating in a very general way what people mean when they talk research, is not specific and precise enough to give us a complete and clear idea of what research involves. Name of research involve mainly a 're-search' i.e. activities refers to 'a critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation having as its aim the revision of accepted conclusions in light of newly discovered facts'. The function of research is to add new knowledge to its existing store, but its power of cleansing our mind. Research is now become the prime goal all over the world. Numerous problems have been solved by it and uncountable problems are still to be solved.

Research in the humanities-literature, music and fine arts enhances the quality of life. While other disciplines deal with biological and economic realities. Although music is entertainment, classical music, specially because of its rigorous discipline and its theory bonds with the past tradition keeps us close to our cultural values e.g. A performer belonging to the modern generation during his performance wear traditional clothes, copies traditional gestures, like bowing to his elder's etc. However, a look at the history of music shows that the Natya sastra and other granthas (textbook) follow an established pattern of inquiry. Art and Theory are both valid and complementary "Can we say Raman's cogitation on colours are less beautiful than Nandlal Bose's painting? (Deva, S.N.A. 1970, p. 6).

The methods given in Research methodology books of other disciplines are not easily adaptable to music is a complex art and a taste for it, is acquired over a number of years. Special techniques have to be devised to elicit responses from listeners of classical music. There is a popular fallacy that music can only be demonstrated and not written about. Music as a descriptive suffers from lack of research, so less research has been done in music than in the social sciences. Most artists feel that it is not possible to express anything their art with more words, they feel happy when they demonstrate their point by singing rather than by talking. While this is true of certain aspects like comparing two ragas, showing the shape and texture of 'gamakas' and also there are many great aspects that can be covered by language, e.g. Biographies of great musicians, study of sahitya and its decorative 'angas', sources of patronage, critical evaluation of trends and philosophical background of our Indian music.

In the present book, an attempt has been made to provide basic guidelines on research. In it, I discussed the subject matter of research. The merits, demerits, various methods like historical, case study, interviews etc. are also covered in it. Various steps mentioned in a research like selection of problem.

The First Introductory Chapter Content
(a) What is Research: In simple word research can be defined as any scholarly investigation in search for truth. Systematized efforts to gain new knowledge are also known as research. Some of the generally accepted definitions of research by well-known scholars are quoted in this part. A research being a fact finding inquiry as certain characteristics of its own, so some of them are mentioned here.

(b) Research in Music: Research in Indian music should be under stood in the light of the uniqueness of Indian thought and values. For it, the research has been finding new fact and it is theoretical as well as practical. Indian music is very rich is traditions and has changed through a very slow process, so new in Indian classical music is not easy to locate. The findings of research in some area of science may be truly dramatic but research in the field of performing art cannot be spectacular.

(c) Varieties of Research: Several methods or types are being used in research e. g. Pure, Action, Experimental. Any one of them can be used, but it must be carried out one on a set pattern and its result should be reliable.

Second Chapter Includes
(a) Selection of Research Problem: Topic selection is an area of primary importance for the secret of success in research. The formulation problem will have very few difficulties in the investigation of the problem.

(b) Formulation of Research Problem: The practical usefulness of the problem plays a significant role in guiding a research worker in selection of data. Formulation of the problems is a important step in research work. He should determine the right kind of research plan or methodology is suited for his research problem.

(c) Hypothesis: A research scholar can not go ahead in a systematic manner with his problems for investigations, without getting some kind of guidance. Such guidance is provided by a hypothesis, which prevent him from grouping in the dark. It has a very important place in research work because without it, research worker cannot proceed in his work. Hypothesis may be de developed from a variety of sources e.g. theory, personal experience etc. By discussing the characteristic of good hypothesis, it comes to know that hypothesizes performs their designated functions vis-a-vis research and the growth of knowledge generally.

(d) Collection of Data (Primary and Secondary): After formulating a problem, hypothesis, the next step is a assembling the data, standardized research tools may be used for data collection and it begin when most of the things pertaining to the nature and mode of enquiry. Data can be interpreted easily and objectively. They are directly linked wih conclusions and are always collected with a sense of purpose. Data are may be either Primary and Secondary. Primary sources are the first appear and the secondary came next. The distinction between these two is very subtle.

Third Chapter only Deals with Primary Sources: In this we discuss various types of methods the interview, questionnaires, historical, case study etc. their advantages and disadvantages, merits, demerits, their types with examples.

Fourth and Final Chapter Contents only secondary sources with their varieties like sculpture, paintings, paintings, manuscripts, text books, oral traditions, by them, 'we not only come to know our great glorious past of our classical music but also its changes from past to past to present, its various instruments, their changed structure from present, valuable old textbooks, musical gharanas, new discoveries of science used in music e.g. C.D., tapes, A.I.R.'s contribution in expanding our soothing lyrics etc.

I do not claim that the matter contained in this book is original, as the ideas of several learned researches scholars have been gathered and quoted in this work. A list of these standard books is given in the bibliography. I have mainly employed sources from books, periodicals, references in the literature, printed materials, sculptures, paintings interviews, radios and live concert. It provides factual knowledge, which encourages independent thinking a growing under-standing and increased appreciation of fundamental principals and values in music.

Introduction

Why a research on music? Music is meant to be listened to and enjoyed, not to be read and thought about, as some of our music lovers say that 'music is an art, the fantastic, sophisticated pleasing art of sound. It is a performing art, to be learnt practically from a guru through oral tradition method'. But there is another aspect of this art, made up of its history, its norms, and its forms and formal rules, its style and, together with these, its ethnic and social implications. The study of the inter-relationship and development of all these would certainly improve one's understanding of this beautiful art. "If the art of music be so natural to man that vocal melody is practiced wherever articulate sounds are used, there can be diatonic sounds, when we observe how early children adopt the language of their amusements to measure and melody, however rude, when we consider how early and universally these practices take place there is no avoiding the conclusion, that the idea of music is conatural to man and implied in the original principles of his constitution,"

The history of Indian music, in common with that of other arts and sciences, furnishes us with similar instruction. It first origin seems to have been to convey the idea of our passions to others. In progress of time, when language arrived to a certain degree of intelligibility, its use to began to be restricted to the worship of the Supreme being. All music lovers commonly know that Indian classical music has its origin in the Sama veda. Yet the singing of the Sama veda has practically disappeared from our country, so if we want to explore the details of the origin of Indian classical music from Sama veda, we have to study the philosophy of the word 'Sama'. And for this we have to take the help of research. In other words we can say as history and science are complementary to each other. The science of Indian music (theory) owes its existence to the different stages of development in the course of its evolution and its importance as historical concepts in Indian music. Materials collected from the various sources play, the greatest and in establishing, the validity in Indian music. And for this we go back to research methodology, which guides us to the rules and regulations of the process of research.

"Every research work ought to have a practical impact and evidence beyond intellectual hypothesis" (S.v. Rai, S.N. 45 p. 55) . A History student can write on the social life and culture of Bharata's time because it is valuable for history as a discipline to know what it was likes in those days. The situation of a music research is different. If he is writing about the Natya sastra or the cultural background at that time, he should bring out the relevance of this information to the music and the cultural background of the present.

What is Research
Curiosity is a distinctive feature of us and we are always ready to know about ourselves and our universe. Questions are always arising in our mind. Whenever we encounter problems, we try to find solutions to them. Finding answers to various problems has given toe progress to human life. Research is composed of two words 're' and 'search', which means to search again or a careful investigation to re-understand or re-examine the fact or to search them. A systematic search for an answer to a question or a solution to a problem is called 'Research'. Research denotes original investigation leading to new knowledge. "The word research has been derived from the French word 'rechercher', 're' and 'cercer' modern 'chercher', to search. These words put together mean a critical examination into a topic or subject to discover new facts for increasing sum total of human knowledge,"?

The origin of research is curiosity. It, therefore means a continued search for knowledge and understanding. As long as man's inquisitive pursuits do not end, the onward march of human society to more advanced achievements will not stop. It is an organized inquiry.' It seeks to find explanation to unexplained phenomenon, to clarify the doubtful facts and to correct the misconceived facts. Karlinger defines research as a "systematic, controlled, empirical and critical investigation of hypothetical proposition about the presumed relation among natural phenomena." Research does not always call for hypotheses. It may also be carried out for the discovery of hypothesis. Research in common parlance refers to a search for knowledge. One can also define research as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. In fact, research is an art of scientific investigation. The Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English Laydown the meaning of research as, "a careful investigation or inquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge,"? Red men and Mory define research as a "systematized effort to gain new knowledge."

The Websters International Dictionary proposes a very incisive definition of research, "a careful critical inquiry of examination in seeking facts or principles, diligent investigation in order to ascertain something". This definition indicates in a very general way what people mean by research. It is also specific to give us a complete and clear idea of what research involves.

And also Webster's third new international dictionary of the English Language (1981, Vol. 2, 1930) defines research as "a studious inquiry or examination especially. Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation having for its aim, the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or practical applications of new or revised conclusions, theories or laws" George A Lund Berg says, " ... sufficiently objective and systematic to make possible classification, generalisation and verification of the data observed". The New Century Dictionary: "A searching made for something especially with care also, a continued careful enquiry or investigation into a subjects in order to discover facts or principles". "It is essentially a systematic inquiry seeking facts through objective verifiable methods in order to discover the relationship among them and to deduce from them broad principles or Laws".-M.H. Gopal,?

This is a definition of research in the general sense. According to Moaly, "Actually research is simply the process of arriving at dependable solutions to problems, through the planned and systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of data." (Mouly 1964, p. 4) Fox says "We must know what we do and why we do, we must also known what ways we have considered and rejected and why" (Fox 1969, p. V). According to John Best, "Research is a more systematic activity directed towards discovery and the development of an organised body of knowledge.! In other words "Research is considered to be the more formal systematic intensive process of carrying on the scientific method of analysis. It involves a more systematic structure of investigation usually resulting in some sort of formal record of procedures and a report of results or conclusions.

Research is an honest, exhaustive, intelligent searching for facts and their meanings of implications with reference to given problem. It is the process of arriving at dependable solutions to problems through the planned and systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of data. The best research is that, which is reliable, verifiable and exhaustive so that at provides information in which we have confidence. - P.M Cook.

Research is a systematic and refined technique of thinking, employing specialised tools, instruments and procedures in order to obtain a more adequate solution of a problem them would be possible under ordinary means. It starts with a problem, collects data or facts analysis than critically and reaches decision, based on the actual evidence. - C.C. Crawford.

Clifford Woody defines research as " ... research per se constitutes a method for the discovery of truth which is really a method of critical thinking. It comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions, collecting, organizing and evaluating data, making deductions and reaching conclusions and at last, carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulated hypotheses". He further states, "Research ... , is a method for the discovery of new knowledge that is, a method by which is ... mended the existing body of organized facts, ideals and aspiration,"

The name of research involves mainly a 're-search' activities undertaken to repeat a search and it may be stated that research refers to "a critical and exhaustive or experimentation having as its aim the revision of accepted conclusions in the light of newly discovered facts,"!" "The obvious function of research is to add new knowledge to the existing store, but its power for cleaning our mind of cliches and removing the rubbish of applicable theory is equally notable,"

In short, the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solution to a problem is research. Thus, re-searching may be effective to turn the construction of new theories to take the place of those are no longer able to fit the data of the empirical world. Research, stated otherwise, is a systematic attempt to push back the bounds of comprehension or a seek beyond the horizon of our knowledge some 'truth', some reality, to keep on extending and also consolidating these horizons without end.

Young detines Research as "a scientific undertaking which, by means of logical and systematic techniques aims to – (a) Discover new fact or verify and test old facts, (b) Analyse their sequences, inter-relationships and causal explanation, (c) Develop new scientific tools, concepts and theories which would facilitate reliable and valid study of human behaviour."

The urge of human brain to re-examine and to understand things may rightly be called 'research' at least to begin with. Research, therefore has been an integral part of academic pursuit in the past. It may not only be for academic interest but for more human enlightenment that one should study history to understand the dimensional development of mankind. The first step, therefore, in the development of the concept of research was to think systematically.

The primary purpose of research is to discover principals that have universal applications. Research is the formal systematic and intensive process of carrying on the scientific method of analysis.

Characteristic of Research

- Research is systematic: It is a structured process. It has carefully designed procedures. Research is rarely a blind, shot gun investigation.

- Research is logical and objective, applying every possible test to validate the procedures employed, the data collected, and the conclusion reached. The emphasis of the researcher is as testing rather than proving the hypothesis.

- Research is empirical. It is the collection of data that identifies research as an empirical process. Research is based upon observable experience or empirical evidence. Research rejects revelation as methods of establishing knowledge. It accepts only what can be verified by empirical observation.

- Research is directed toward the solution of problem. It may attempt to answer or to determine the relation between two or more variables. It discovers the cause and effect relationship variables.

- Research emphasis the development of generalization, principles or theories. Research is more than information, retrieval or the simple gathering or information.

- Research demands accurate observation and description. It uses quantitative measuring devices, the most precise form of description. It requires valid data gathering procedures. It may employ mechanical electronic or psychometric devices to refine observation, description and analysis of data.

- Research is reductive, as a part of the attempts to translate from reality to an abstract or conceptual state. Reductionism enables research to play an explanatory role rather than simply a descriptive role.

- Research requires carefully designed procedures that apply rigorous analysis.

- Research requires expertise: The researcher knows what is already known about the problem and how other has investigated it. This is thoroughly grounded in the terminology concepts and technical skills necessary to understand and analyze the data that gathered.

- Research is replicable and transmittable. Previous important studies are deliberately repeated using identical or similar producers with different subjects, different settings and a different time. Replication is always desirable to confirm or to raise questions about the conclusions of previous study. Research is considerably less transitory in nature then the products of other problem solving processes.

- Research is characterised by patient and unhurried activity. It is rarely spectacular.

- Research sometimes requires courage o face the position.

- Research tells us relationship between cause that one effects. It is directed towards what is the solution of the problem or to answer of a question.

- Research demands accurate investigation and description.

- Research involves gathering of new data from primary or secondary sources.

- Research requires deep knowledge in the subject concerned.

- Research was born out solve the main problems.

Thus the purpose of the research is to serve human beings. The knowledge gained by research is of the highest order. It is not based on assumptions, beliefs and untested generalization. The term 'research' is used to the more systematic and formal research as the systematic objective, an accurate research for the solution to a well-defined problem.

In a short way we can write:
(a) Research is directed towards the solution of a problem.

(b) Research is based upon observable experience or empirical evidence.

(c) Research demands accurate observation and description.

Mere collection of fact and presenting them in a systematic ways, summarizing a book or an article or telling an old thing cannot be considered as 'research', because it provides no original contribution to knowledge. Research is an art, involving appreciation and expression and is an effective form of training in advanced types of reflective compositions. It helps the researcher to acquire a thorough knowledge of the topic under investigation. It also provided an indispensable technique for future research workers to find out, what methods and procedures of particular import have been applied? What literature of selected investigations has been covered, and what contributions have been made to arrive at the solutions of the problem under investigation.

Contents

  Acknowledgements v
  Preface vii
  List of Illustrations xi
1 Sources of Research in Indian Classical Music 1-16
  Introduction  
  What is Research  
  Research in Music  
  Varieties of Research  
2 Selection of Research Problem 17-30
  Introduction  
  Formulating the Research Problem  
  Hypotheses  
  Sources of Hypothesis  
  Collection of Data  
3 Primary Sources 31-59
  Introduction  
  Primary Sources  
  Questionnaire  
  Observation  
  Interview  
  Historical Method  
  Surveys  
  Case Study Method  
  Phases  
4 Secondary Sources 60-165
  Introduction  
  Sculpture  
  Painting  
  Musical Pillars and Stones  
  Coins  
  Epigraphy and Inscription  
  Manuscripts  
  Text books  
  Oral Tradition  
  Composition and Notation  
  Journal and Articles  
  Dictionaries  
  Bibliographies  
  All India Radio  
  Gramophones, Tapes, C.D.  
  Computer Discs  
Appendix Interviews and Articles 166-214
  Conclusion 215-216
  Bibliography 217-220
  Index 221-224

 

Sample Pages
















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