There is a lot that Indian Philosophy has brought to the table, in spite of having certain similarities with Western philosophy. There is a huge gap in the value system between the two, which also clarifies why Indian philosophy added a whole new perspective through addition of new arguments into the philosophical conversations going on in the Western society. The Indian way of thinking depends on three major thoughts: atman, karma, and moksha. Except for the Charvakas, all Indian methods of reasoning are concerned about these three thoughts and how they connect with each other, yet this doesn't imply that they all acknowledge these thoughts' objective legitimacy similarly. Indian Philosophy has unraveled some lacks in the western philosophy; the major one of them being the introduction of the genesis (utpatti) and perception (jnaapti) of truth. The Vedas are one of the primary records of how the human mind created the concepts of the Almighty and the other cosmological ideas; and the various mythological stories surrounding it.
One of the first notions of a spiritual reality brought forward by Indian Philosophy is in the Upanishads, and is all-pervasive and universal. The concepts of ethics, the human mind, human nature also found their space in the philosophy of the Upanishads. There is so much variability in the numerous Indian philosophies' points of view, theories, and organizational frameworks that it is nearly impossible to identify traits that are shared by all of them. All orthodox (astika) systems accept the primacy of the Vedas, but not the unorthodox (nastika) systems like Charvaka (extreme materialism), Buddhism, or Jainism. Like adherence to the authority of the scriptures, acceptance of the ideal of moksha was only tangentially related to the systematic concepts being advanced in the majority of Indian philosophical systems. Many philosophical, logical, and even epistemological theories that had no direct bearing on the goal of moksha were contested and determined on solely rational reasons. Only the Vedanta ("end of the Vedas") philosophy and the Samkhya ("a theory that acknowledges genuine substance and a plurality of the individual souls") philosophy may be claimed to be closely related to the goal of moksha.
Different schools of Indian Philosophy
Yoga: To reach the state of unadulterated consciousness, or “Moksha”; Yoga might be your easiest and healthiest key. Yoga, aside from having a philosophical significance, is a great way to remain happy and healthy, both physically and mentally.
Nyaya: This school of Indian philosophy bases its values on four means of knowledge- upamana meaning comparison, anumana being inference and pratyaksha meaning perception.
Vaisheshika: This school of Indian philosophy takes a scientific approach to things by defining what an atom is. It says that an atom is the smallest unit in the world.
Purva Mimamsa: The aim of Mimamsa is to construct a logical framework for Vedic ceremonial practice as well as standards for interpreting the Vedas, the oldest texts of Hinduism. Mimamsa's mission is to spread wisdom about dharma, which is understood in this school as a set of ceremonial obligations and rights that, when carried out properly, uphold world peace and further the performer's own objectives. Dharma can only be discovered by revelation in the Vedas, which are revered as eternal, authorless, and infallible because neither observation nor logic can do so.
Q1. Who is Shankaracharya?
Shankaracharya is known as the “Father of Indian Philosophy”.
Q2. What is the philosophy embraced by Indians?
Numerous ideas from Indian philosophy are shared, including dharma, karma, samsara, reincarnation, dukkha, renunciation, and meditation. Almost all of them center on the ultimate objective of releasing oneself from dukkha and samsara through a variety of spiritual practices (moksha, nirvana).
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